9th Grade  Science

9th Grade Science

Life Sciences Physical Sciences Science and Technology Scientific Inquiry Scientific Ways
of Knowing

 

Earth and Space Sciences

(Based on State of Ohio
Curriculum Standards)

1. Describe that stars produce energy from nuclear reactions and that processes in stars have led to the formation of all elements beyond hydrogen and helium.
  1. Star Spectra   Analyze the spectra of a variety of stars. Determine the elements that are represented in each spectrum, and use this information to infer the temperature and classification of the star. Look for unusual features such as red-shifted stars, nebulas, and stars with large planets
  2. H-R Diagram-A collection of stars visible from Earth can be arranged based on many observables including color, luminosity, temperature, name and size. This can be done using one or two‑dimensional plots, and a plot of luminosity vs. temperature can be created in an effort to learn about the Hertzsprung‑Russell diagram.
2. Describe the current scientific evidence that supports the theory of the explosive expansion of the universe, the Big Bang, over 10 billion years ago.
  1. The Big Bang Theory  (Web site)  The Big Bang Theory is the dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe. According to the big bang, the universe was created sometime between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions
  2. Big bang Theory   (Web site) The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe. The big bang theory is an effort to explain what happened during and after that moment.
  3. Big Bang Theory  (Power Point)  Outstanding presentation
3. Explain that gravitational forces govern the characteristics and movement patterns of the planets, comets and asteroids in the Solar System.
  1. Orbit Simulator -This interactive activity from ExploreScience allows you to control up to 9 celestial objects and alter their mass, velocity, and direction to understand the effect of gravity on orbits.
    Note: Every Gizmo in the library can be used for up to 5 minutes each per day.
  2. Gravitational Force-
    Drag two objects around and observe the gravitational force between them as the positions change. The mass of each object can be adjusted, and the gravitational force is displayed both vectorially and numerically as the distance between the objects is altered.
  3. Tides-Gain an understanding of high, low, spring, and neap tides on the Earth by observing the tidal heights and the positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun.  Tidal bulges can be observed from space, and water depths can be recorded from a dock by the ocean.
4. Explain the relationships of the oceans to the lithosphere and atmosphere (e.g., transfer of energy, ocean currents, landforms).
  1. Oceanography -This fantastic site has loads of information on oceans and currents, including online lessons, pictures, diagrams, labs, a dictionary, a review test, and a printable teacher guide in Acrobat format.
5. Explain how the slow movement of material within Earth results from
a. thermal energy transfer   
    (conduction and convection)
    from the deep interior
b. the action of gravitational
    forces on regions of different
    density
  1. Calorimetry Lab-Investigate how calorimetry can be used to find relative specific heat values when different substances are mixed with water. Modify initial mass and temperature values to see effects on the system. One or any combination of the substances can be mixed with water. A dynamic graph (temperature vs. time) shows temperatures of the individual substances after mixing.
  2. Atwood Machine-Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley.  Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newtonís Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley.
  3. Freefall Laboratory-Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground.
  4. Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects-Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used.
     
6. Explain the results of plate tectonic activity (e.g., magma generation, igneous intrusion, metamorphism, volcanic action, earthquakes, faulting and folding).
  1. Plate Tectonics -This fantastic site has loads of information on plate tectonics, including online lessons, pictures, diagrams, labs, a dictionary, a review test, and a printable teacher guide in Acrobat format
  2. This Dynamic Earth -This web site from the USGS has seven sections covering all aspects of plate tectonics, with great explanations, diagrams, and pictures
  3. You Try It: Plate Tectonics -This PBS website teaches all about plate tectonics and what happens at the boundaries. There is even a shockwave activity that allows the user to slide the plates around to make mountains, volcanoes, trenches, and earthquakes
  4. Waves Tutorial - Part 1 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about waves, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers types of waves, reflection, refraction, diffraction, the wave equation, seismic waves, and much more.
  5. Plate Tectonics-Move the Earth at various locations to observe the effects of the motion of the techtonic plates, including volcanic eruptions. 
7. Explain sea-floor spreading and continental drift using scientific evidence (e.g., fossil distributions, magnetic reversals and radiometric dating).
  1. Earthquake - Recording Station  -Using an earthquake recording station, learn how to determine the distance between the station and an earthquake based on the time difference between the arrival of the primary and secondary waves. A real‑time recording chart is generated, and the times between the waves can be measured.
  2. Plate Tectonics-  Move the Earth at various locations to observe the effects of the motion of the tectonic plates, including volcanic eruptions. Information about each of the major types of plate collisions is shown, along with the typical location on the Earth.
  3. Half-life-Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance.
8. Use historical examples to explain how new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often initially rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many different investigators (e.g., heliocentric theory and plate tectonics theory).
  1. Plate Tectonics -This fantastic site has loads of information on plate tectonics, including online lessons, pictures, diagrams, labs, a dictionary, a review test, and a printable teacher guide in Acrobat format.
  2. This Dynamic Earth -This web site from the USGS has seven sections covering all aspects of plate tectonics, with great explanations, diagrams, and pictures.
  3. Plate Tectonics-Move the Earth at various locations to observe the effects of the motion of the techtonic plates, including volcanic eruptions.

Life Sciences   Physical Sciences

1. Recognize that all atoms of the same element contain the same number of protons, and elements with the same number of protons may or may not have the same mass. Those with different masses (different numbers of neutrons) are called isotopes.
  1. Isotopes and Radioactivity -From the University of Colorado at Boulder, this site uses interactive Java applets and cartoon characters to introduce physics in a friendly way. This section covers isotopes and radioactivity.
  2. Element Builder-Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements. As the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons changes, information such as the name and symbol of the element, the Z, N, and A numbers, the electron dot diagram, and the group and period from the periodic table are shown. The state of the element at room temperature is provided, along with the metallicity of the element.
  3. Nuclear Decay-Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture.
2. Illustrate that atoms with the same number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons are electrically neutral.
  1. Electron Configuration-Create the electron configuration of any element by filling electron orbitals. Determine the relationship between electron configuration and atomic radius.
  2. Element Builder--Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements. As the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons changes, information such as the name and symbol of the element, the Z, N, and A numbers, the electron dot diagram, and the group and period from the periodic table are shown. The state of the element at room temperature is provided, along with the metallicity of the element.
  3. Nuclear Decay-Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture.
3. Describe radioactive substances as unstable nuclei that undergo random spontaneous nuclear decay emitting particles and/or high energy wavelike radiation.
  1. Isotopes and Radioactivity -From the University of Colorado at Boulder, this site uses interactive Java applets and cartoon characters to introduce physics in a friendly way. This section covers isotopes and radioactivity.
  2. Half-life-Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance.
  3. Half-life Laboratory-Investigate the half life of a sample of radioactive particles as well as a dynamic graph of the number of particles vs. time.
  4. Nuclear Decay-Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture.

 

4. Show that when elements are listed in order according to the number of protons (called the atomic number), the repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties identify families of elements. Recognize that the periodic table was formed as a result of the repeating pattern of electron configurations.
  1. Web Elements -This is the most comprehensive of all periodic table sites on the WWW. It contains a vast amount of information about the elements, including their history, reactions, uses, structure, and more. There is even a small voice over which tells you how the elements should be pronounced.
  2. Periodic Table game -This is an interactive game to help you understand the patterns and trends within the Periodic Table. Several levels are available to best match your skill and knowledge
  3. The Periodic Table -From the University of Colorado at Boulder, this site uses interactive Java applets and cartoon characters to introduce physics in a friendly way. This section covers the periodic table
  4. The Elements Song (Animated) -This is an entertaining, and informational, review of the elements. The song was originally written by Tom Lehrer, and has now been made into this animated clip.
  5. Covalent Bonds-Choose a substance and move electrons between atoms to build covalent bonds and molecules.
  6. Electron Configuration-Create the electron configuration of any element by filling electron orbitals. Determine the relationship between electron configuration and atomic radius.
  7. Element Builder--Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements. As the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons changes, information such as the name and symbol of the element, the Z, N, and A numbers, the electron dot diagram, and the group and period from the periodic table are shown. The state of the element at room temperature is provided, along with the metallicity of the element.
     
5. Describe how ions are formed when an atom or a group of atoms acquire an unbalanced charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons.
  1. Element Builder--Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements. As the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons changes, information such as the name and symbol of the element, the Z, N, and A numbers, the electron dot diagram, and the group and period from the periodic table are shown. The state of the element at room temperature is provided, along with the metallicity of the element.
     
6. Explain that the electric force between the nucleus and the electrons hold an atom together. Relate that on a larger scale, electric forces hold solid and liquid materials together (e.g., salt crystals, water).
  1. Electron Configuration-Create the electron configuration of any element by filling electron orbitals. Determine the relationship between electron configuration and atomic radius.
  2. Element Builder-Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements. As the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons changes, information such as the name and symbol of the element, the Z, N, and A numbers, the electron dot diagram, and the group and period from the periodic table are shown. The state of the element at room temperature is provided, along with the metallicity of the element.
  3. Nuclear Decay--Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture.
     
7. Show how atoms may be bonded together by losing, gaining or sharing electrons and that in a chemical reaction, the number, type of atoms and total mass must be the same before and after the reaction (e.g., writing correct chemical formulas and writing balanced chemical equations).
  1. Balancing Chemical Equations-Attempt to balance specific types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement.
  2. Chemical Equation Balancing-Practice balancing chemical equations by changing the coefficients of reactants and products.
  3. Covalent Bonds-Choose a substance and move electrons between atoms to build covalent bonds and molecules.
  4. Ionic Bonds-Simulate ionic bonds between a variety of metals and nonmetals. Select a metal and a nonmetal, and transfer electrons from one to the other.
8. Demonstrate the pH scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral.
  1. Acids, Alkalis, and Neutralisation
    This interactive site lets you predict and then test many substance to determine if they are acidic or basic, and where they would register on the pH scale.
  2. pH Analysis-Test the acidity of many common everyday substances using pH paper.
  3. pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator-Test the acidity of many common everyday substances using pH paper (four color indicators).
9. Investigate the properties of pure substances and mixtures (e.g., density, conductivity, hardness, properties of alloys, superconductors and semiconductors).
  1. Heat Transfer by Conduction   -An insulated beaker of hot water is connected to a beaker of cold water with a conducting bar, and over time the temperature of the beakers becomes equal as heat flows through the conducting bar. The material of the conducting bar can be changed, and the temperature of each beaker is dynamically shown in various formats.
  2. Density Experiment: Slice and Dice-Drop a chunk of material in a beaker of water and observe whether it sinks or floats.
  3. Density Laboratory-With a scale to measure mass, a graduated cylinder to measure volume, and a large beaker of liquid to observe floatation, the relationship between mass, volume, density, and floatation can be investigated.
  4. Determining Density via Water Displacement-Drop objects in a beaker that is filled with water and measure the water that flows over the edge.
10. Compare the conductivity of different materials and explain the role of electrons in the ability to conduct electricity.
  1. Intro to Electricity and Magnetism
    This interactive activity from ExploreScience covers topics such as static electricity, current, resistance, conductors, circuits, magnetism, the relationship between electricity and magnetism, and how generators work.
    Note: Every Gizmo in the library can be used for up to 5 minutes each per day.
  2. The Electricity Book: Part 2
    This interactive lesson teaches all about how electricity moves through a circuit to light a bulb. Great animations and explanations make the information clear.
  3. Element Builder-Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements.
     
11. Explain how thermal energy exists in the random motion and vibrations of atoms and molecules (kinetic energy). Recognize that the higher the temperature, the greater the average atomic or molecular motion (potential energy), and during changes of state the temperature remains constant.
  1. Energy Conversion in a System   -Allow a falling object to stir a beaker of water using a pulley system. The mass and height of the object, and the quantity of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is being converted from one form to another.
  2. Boyle's Law and Charles' Law-Investigate the properties of an ideal gas by performing experiments in which the temperature is held constant (Boyle's Law), and others in which the pressure remains fixed (Charles' Law).
  3. Relative Humidity-Measure the temperature on both a wet and dry bulb thermometer to determine the relative humidity over time.
  4. Temperature and Particle Motion-Observe the movement of particles of an ideal gas at a variety of temperatures.
12. Explain how an objectís kinetic energy depends on its mass and its speed (KE = Ĺmv2).
  1. Roller Coaster Physics - Adjust the hills on a toy‑car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The height of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including potential, kinetic, and total energies, and the x and y components of position, velocity, and acceleration.
  2. Air Track-Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track.
  3. Energy of a Pendulum-Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion.
  4. Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects-Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction.
  5. Period of a Pendulum-Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of the period during simple harmonic motion.
  6. Simple Harmonic Motion-Observe two different forms of simple harmonic motion: a pendulum and a spring supporting a mass.
13. Demonstrate that near Earthís surface an objectís gravitational potential energy depends upon its weight (mg where m is the objectís mass and g is the acceleration due to gravity) and height (h) above a reference surface (PE = mgh).
  1. How to make a Roller Coaster Work -This interactive web site demonstrates the concepts of potential and kinetic energy by using a roller coaster. The site allows you to choose one of three roller coaster tracks and a starting height for your car. Then it generates an animation showing what happens to the car and how far it makes it on the track.
  2. Energy Conversion in a System-Allow a falling object to stir a beaker of water using a pulley system.
  3. Potential Energy on Shelves-Compare the potential energy of several objects when you place them on shelves of different heights.
     
14. Summarize how nuclear reactions convert a small amount of matter into a large amount of energy. (Fission involves the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei; fusion is the joining of two small nuclei into a larger nucleus at extremely high energies.)
  1. Half-life - Investigate the half-life of a sample of radioactive particles. Data can be interpreted visually using a dynamic graph (number of particles vs. time), a bar chart, and columns of data. The half-life can be adjusted
  2. Nuclear Decay  - Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture. Write nuclear equations by determining the mass number and atomic number of daughter products and emitted particles.

 

15. Trace the transformations of energy within a system (e.g., chemical to electrical to mechanical) and recognize that energy is conserved. Show that these transformations involve the release of some thermal energy.
  1. Energy Conversion in a System   -Allow a falling object to stir a beaker of water using a pulley system. The mass and height of the object, and the quantity of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is being converted from one form to another.
  2. Phase Changes  - Explore the relationship between molecular motion, temperature, and phase changes. Compare the molecular structure of solids, liquids, and gases. Graph temperature changes as ice is melted and water is boiled. Find the effect of altitude on phase changes. The starting temperature, ice volume, altitude, and rate of heating or cooling can be adjusted
16. Illustrate that chemical reactions are either endothermic or exothermic (e.g., cold packs, hot packs and the burning of fossil fuels).
  1. Temperature and Particle Motion   -Observe the movement of particles of an ideal gas at a variety of temperatures. A histogram showing the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution is shown, and the most probable velocity, mean velocity, and root mean square velocity can be calculated. Molecules of different gases can be compared.
17. Demonstrate that thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, convection or radiation (e.g., through materials by the collision of particles, moving air masses or across empty space by forms of electromagnetic radiation).
  1.  Heat Transfer by Conduction-An insulated beaker of hot water is connected to a beaker of cold water with a conducting bar, and over time the temperature of the beakers becomes equal as heat flows through the conducting bar.
  2. Phase Changes-Explore the relationship between molecular motion, temperature, and phase changes.
18. Demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy. Recognize that light acts as a wave. Show that visible light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays).
  1. Electromagnetic Waves -From the University of Colorado at Boulder, this site uses interactive Java applets and cartoon characters to introduce physics in a friendly way. This section covers electromagnetic waves.
  2. Light and Color -This web site has detailed explanations of electromagnetic radiation, the nature and behavior of light, and much more. In addition each section has an interactive tool for the user to manipulate and learn the concepts
  3. Waves Tutorial - Part 1 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about waves, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers types of waves, reflection, refraction, diffraction, the wave equation, seismic waves, and much more
  4. Waves Tutorial - Part 2 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about electromagnetic radiation, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers the properties and uses of electromagnetic radiation and its various forms including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. The tutorial also covers ultrasound and digital versus analog signals.
  5. Bohr Model of Hydrogen-Shoot a stream of photons through a container of hydrogen gas.
  6. Bohr Model: Introduction-Fire photons to determine the spectrum of a gas. Observe how an absorbed photon changes the orbit of an electron, and how a photon is emitted from an excited electron.
19. Show how the properties of a wave depend on the properties of the medium through which it travels. Recognize that electromagnetic waves can be propagated without a medium.
  1. Waves Tutorial - Part 1 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about waves, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers types of waves, reflection, refraction, diffraction, the wave equation, seismic waves, and much more
  2. Waves Tutorial - Part 2 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about electromagnetic radiation, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers the properties and uses of electromagnetic radiation and its various forms including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. The tutorial also covers ultrasound and digital versus analog signals.
  3. Sound Beats and Sine Waves-Listen to and see interference patterns produced by sound waves with similar frequencies. Test your ability to distinguish and match sounds as musicians do when they tune their instruments.
20. Describe how waves can superimpose on one another when propagated in the same medium. Analyze conditions in which waves can bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, are absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction and speed when entering a different material.
  1. Refraction of Light -This web site gives a detailed explanation of light refraction. It also has several interactive tools, including one where the user can pick a medium and then adjust the angle of the light hitting it to see the effect it has on refraction
  2. Reflection of Light -This web site gives a detailed explanation of light reflection. It also has several interactive tools, including one where the user can pick the angle and color of the light hitting a surface to see the effect on reflection.
  3. Waves Tutorial - Part 1 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about waves, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers types of waves, reflection, refraction, diffraction, the wave equation, seismic waves, and much more
  4. Waves Tutorial - Part 2 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about electromagnetic radiation, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers the properties and uses of electromagnetic radiation and its various forms including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. The tutorial also covers ultrasound and digital versus analog signals.
  5. Laser Reflection-Point a laser at a mirror and record the incoming angle as well as the angle after the reflection from the mirror.
     
21. Demonstrate that motion is a measurable quantity that depends on the observerís frame of reference and describe the objectís motion in terms of position, velocity, acceleration and time.
  1. Learn about Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
    This interactive web site allows you to set the starting position, speed, and acceleration of two different objects. Then the site creates an animation to show what happens to those two objects over time. Finally the site provides lots of great facts and questions about this topic.
  2. Forces Tutorial - Part 1 -This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about force, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers speed, velocity, acceleration, force, mass, weight, friction, and more. Lots of practical examples and graphs are used to explain these concepts. You can view the entire tutorial or jump to the section you want.
  3. Atwood Machine-Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley.
  4. Fan Cart Physics-Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track.
  5. Freefall Laboratory-Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air.
  6. Roller Coaster Physics-Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track.
  7. Uniform Circular Motion-Measure the position, velocity, and acceleration (both components and magnitude) of an object undergoing circular motion.
22. Demonstrate that any object does not accelerate (remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion) unless an unbalanced (net) force acts on it.
  1. What Happens When Two Things Collide
    This interactive web site allows you to pick two different vehicles from a scooter up to a dump truck, and then set the starting speeds of them. Then the site creates an animation to show what happens when the two vehicles collide.
  2. Forces Tutorial - Part 1
    This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about force, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers speed, velocity, acceleration, force, mass, weight, friction, and more. Lots of practical examples and graphs are used to explain these concepts. You can view the entire tutorial or jump to the section you want.
23. Explain the change in motion (acceleration) of an object. Demonstrate that the acceleration is proportional to the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. (Fnet = ma. Note that weight is the gravitational force on a mass.)
  1. Make Tracks
    This interactive web site allows you to build a roller coaster track from ten different pieces. Then you can send a cart down the track and view the results in real-time 3-D (either from the cart's perspective or from a distance away). While the cart goes down the track, the speed and g-force are displayed.
  2. Forces Tutorial - Part 1
    This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about force, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers speed, velocity, acceleration, force, mass, weight, friction, and more. Lots of practical examples and graphs are used to explain these concepts. You can view the entire tutorial or jump to the section you want.
24. Demonstrate that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on the first object.
  1. Forces Tutorial - Part 1
    This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about force, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers speed, velocity, acceleration, force, mass, weight, friction, and more. Lots of practical examples and graphs are used to explain these concepts. You can view the entire tutorial or jump to the section you want.
25. Demonstrate the ways in which frictional forces constrain the motion of objects (e.g., a car traveling around a curve, a block on an inclined plane, a person running, an airplane in flight).
  1. What is Friction?
    This interactive web site gives a good explanation of friction and then lets you try an experiment online. You pick the type of vehicle, its speed, the road conditions, and how soon you wish to apply your brakes. It then generates an animation to show if you were able to stop in time to avoid an accident.
  2. Forces Tutorial - Part 1
    This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about force, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers speed, velocity, acceleration, force, mass, weight, friction, and more. Lots of practical examples and graphs are used to explain these concepts. You can view the entire tutorial or jump to the section you want.
26. Use historical examples to explain how new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often initially rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many different investigators (e.g., atomic theory, quantum theory, Newtonian mechanics).
  1.  Bohr Model of Hydrogen-
    Shoot a stream of photons through a container of hydrogen gas. Observe how photons of certain energies are absorbed, causing changes in the orbits of electrons. Build the spectrum of hydrogen based on photons that are absorbed and emitted.
  2. Bohr Model: Introduction-
    Fire photons to determine the spectrum of a gas. Observe how an absorbed photon changes the orbit of an electron, and how a photon is emitted from an excited electron. Calculate the energies of absorbed and emitted photons based on energy level diagrams. The light energy produced by the laser can be modulated, and a lamp can be used to view the entire absorption spectrum at once.
27. Describe advances and issues in physical science that have important, long lasting effects on science and society (e.g., atomic theory, quantum theory, Newtonian mechanics, nuclear energy, nanotechnology, plastics and ceramics and communication technology).
  1. Waves Tutorial - Part 2
    This is an excellent and extensive online tutorial about electromagnetic radiation, using animations, audio explanations, and interactive quizzes. This tutorial covers the properties and uses of electromagnetic radiation and its various forms including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. The tutorial also covers ultrasound and digital versus analog signals.
  2.  Bohr Model of Hydrogen-
    Shoot a stream of photons through a container of hydrogen gas. Observe how photons of certain energies are absorbed, causing changes in the orbits of electrons. Build the spectrum of hydrogen based on photons that are absorbed and emitted.
  3. Bohr Model: Introduction-
    Fire photons to determine the spectrum of a gas. Observe how an absorbed photon changes the orbit of an electron, and how a photon is emitted from an excited electron. Calculate the energies of absorbed and emitted photons based on energy level diagrams. The light energy produced by the laser can be modulated, and a lamp can be used to view the entire absorption spectrum at once.

 

Science and Technology

1. Describe means of comparing the benefits with the risks of technology and how science can inform public policy.  
2. Identify a problem or need, propose designs and choose among alternative solutions for the problem.  
3. Explain why a design should be continually assessed and the ideas of the design should be tested, adapted and refined.  

Scientific Inquiry

1. Distinguish between observations and inferences given a scientific situation.  
2. Research and apply appropriate safety precautions when designing and conducting scientific investigations (e.g., OSHA, Material Safety Data Sheets [MSDS], eyewash, goggles, ventilation).
  1. The Material Safety Data Sheet Quiz
    This quiz contains seven parts. In each section you will read some background material about OSHA-required content, consult an MSDS sheet, and then answer a few questions. You must complete one section in order to move on to the next one.
    (Submitted by: Steve Wheeler)
  2. Fire Extinguisher Training
    Module from Oklahoma State University offering a guided tutorial and quiz over the proper use of fire extinguishers. Ideal for safety training for the Science or Vocational lab.
    (Submitted by: Steve Wheeler
3. Construct, interpret and apply physical and conceptual models that represent or explain systems, objects, events or concepts.  
4. Decide what degree of precision based on the data is adequate and round off the results of calculator operations to the proper number of significant figures to reasonably reflect those of the inputs.  
5. Develop oral and written presentations using clear language, accurate data, appropriate graphs, tables, maps and available technology.  
6. Draw logical conclusion based on scientific knowledge and evidence from investigations.  

Scientific Ways of Knowing

1. Comprehend that many scientific investigations require the contributions of women and men from different disciplines in and out of science. These people study different topics, use different techniques and have different standards of evidence but share a common purpose - to better understand a portion of our universe.  
2. Illustrate that the methods and procedures used to obtain evidence must be clearly reported to enhance opportunities for further investigations.  
3. Demonstrate that reliable scientific evidence improves the ability of scientists to offer accurate predictions.  
4. Explain how support of ethical practices in science (e.g., individual observations and confirmations, accurate reporting, peer review and publication) are required to reduce bias.  
5. Justify that scientific theories are explanations of large bodies of information and/or observations that withstand repeated testing.  
6. Explain that inquiry fuels observation and experimentation that produce data that are the foundation of scientific disciplines. Theories are explanations of these data.  
7. Recognize that scientific knowledge and explanations have changed over time, almost always building on earlier knowledge.  
8. Illustrate that much can be learned about the internal workings of science and the nature of science from the study of scientists, their daily work and their efforts to advance scientific knowledge in their area of study.  
9. Investigate how the knowledge, skills and interests learned in science classes apply to the careers students plan to pursue.