9th Grade Social Studies


People in Societies

Geography Economics Government  

Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities



Social Studies Skills and Methods




(Based on State of Ohio Curriculum Standards)

1. Explain how Enlightenment ideas produced enduring effects on political, economic and cultural institutions, including challenges to religious authority, monarchy and absolutism
  1. The European Enlightenment
    The European Enlightenment is designed as a learning module in the form of a "research textbook." The module provides more information and in more detail than the average freshman level world cultures/history/civilizations textbook. The resources in this module include an historical text, a discussion of culture and religion, an historical atlas, a glossary of terms, a text of primary readings, a gallery, a hypertext bibliography of internet resources, and administrative texts.
  2. English Bill of Rights 1689
    Text of the 1689 English Bill of Rights.
  3. You Say You Want A Revolution
    This is a Web Quest dealing with the English Civil War and the French Revolution.
  4. The Growth of the Democratic Tradition: The Age of Enlightenment                                                                                       This lesson provides an overview of the Enlightenment. There are a variety of activities from which to choose which allow the individual teacher to adapt each one to their individual classroom. The activities are appropriate for most students, and can be adapted to many different learning styles. There is only one activity that includes an alternative activity for more advanced students. The reading level appears appropriate for the grade level and has a very extensive glossary to help students.
2. Explain connections among Enlightenment ideas, the American Revolution, the French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.
  1. The French Revolution - History Channel
    This web site goes along with the History Channel documentary about the French Revolution. Here you will find and interactive timeline, a hangman game, photo gallery, and more.
  2. The Road to Revolution game
    Test your knowledge about the American Revolution, and see if you can navigate your way to independence. Every correct answer gets you closer to liberty!
  3. Simon Bolivar and the Latin American Wars of Independence
    This web site has a good reference article written about the Latin American Wars of Independence.
3. Explain the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution with emphasis on
a. how scientific and technological changes promoted industrialization in the textile industry in England
b. the impact of the growth of population, rural-to-urban migrations, growth of industrial cities and emigration out of Europe
c. the changing role of labor and the rise of the union movement
d. changes in living and working conditions for the early industrial working class, especially women and children
e. the growth of industrialization around the world
  1. Ohio Women
    This site uses pages of information, pictures, and primary sources to explain the struggles, accomplishments, and daily life of Ohio women and their influence both locally and nationally.
  2. Age of Industry
    This web site has dozens of links (with helpful descriptions) to excellent sites concerning agriculture, transportation, communication and textiles in the Industrial Revolution.
  3. The Plight of Women's Work in the Early Industrial Revolution in England and Wales
    This site has diaries, primary text items and pictures from factories and mines during the early Industrial Revolution dealing with the labor of women and children. Each section has questions at the end to help the user assess what they have learned.
  4. British Textile Industry
    This site has a complete history of the British textile industry from the domestic system to the 1950s. It includes information on the inventors, inventions, and interviews with factory workers. There is also a Child Labour Debate Activity and a Child Labour Simulation available on the site.
  5. Sunday Creek Coal Mine #6 Photograph                                 This photograph from the 1940s shows the Sunday Creek Coal Mine #6 in Millfield, Ohio, the site of one of the worst mining disasters in Ohio's history. On November 5, 1930, a buildup of methane gas exploded when the trolley the miners used to carry coal out of the mine produced a spark on the track. Eighty-two men were killed. This visual exemplifies the dangerous job conditions that were an effect of the American Industrial Revolution.
  6. Was There an Industrial Revolution? Americans at Work Before the Civil War                                                                        This lesson deals with the US prior to the Civil War and address the social, political and economic effects of industrialization. The many primary sources included provide the teacher and student with a variety of great documents from which to choose to understand the time period. The variety of suggestions included in the lesson plan enable the teacher to adapt this lesson to a variety of settings. This lesson provides a sufficiently diverse set of suggested activities to meet nearly any need.
4. Describe the political, economic and social roots of imperialism.
  1. The Age of Imperialism                                                                    The lesson is primarily designed for an on-line history class. The individual teacher may choose to adapt many of the individual components to better enhance their own lesson plans. The teacher will need to do the necessary adaptations and/or modifications for differentiated instruction and reading levels. The post-test is very well constructed and a teacher could easily pick and choose from the wide variety of short answer and essay questions. The teacher should set aside some time to create lessons that are based on the information presented on this site. This would be a good launching site for someone with little prior knowledge of imperialism.
5. Analyze the perspectives of the colonizers and the colonized concerning
a. indigenous language
b. natural resources
c. labor
d. political systems
e. religion
  1. Empire Beyond the Seas by Richard Silocka                          The lesson focuses on American imperialism at the turn of the century. Students will read sections on imperialism; identify regions on a map, identify terms, individuals, and events, read literature passages, or write research reports. Materials needed include internet access or access to a copier, and outline maps. Alternative activities include Mr. Dooley and Iverything and Iverybody by Finley Peter Dunne, selected readings from Mark Twain or Theodore Roosevelt. Suggested research topics are also provided. Bulleted points may be converted into a PowerPoint or lecture note set for the class. Lesson length is dependent on the teacher, the use of suggested activities and may take several classes to complete. The audience is high school with knowledge of Imperialism.
6. Explain the global impact of imperialism including
a. modernization of Japan
b. political and social reform in China
c. exploitation of African resources
  1. The Forbidden City                                                                            This lesson combines study of the Manchu Dynasty and their isolation from the common Chinese people with the study of access of U.S. citizens to U.S. government officials. Through the use of examining the term "forbidden city," students are drawn into this lesson which may otherwise have been unlikely. The extensive vocabulary sections and extension activities make this lesson especially adaptable for all levels of students.
  2. "This Land is you Land; This Land is my Land"/ American Imperialism                                                                                               This lesson was produced by the New York Times to compliment an article on South African band disputes. Though this lesson uses recent events and therefore, does not directly relate to the standard; it would be a great extension lesson to help students relate past history to recent events. In this lesson students are asked to become mini think tanks and analyze the conflict in South Africa from the numerous viewpoints of diverse cultural groups that live their. After being separated into groups students will research one groups perspective and their group will create a poster outlining the needs, perspectives, and demands of their group. Students will then participate in a mock conference designed to have students practice the art of compromise and collaboration.
7. Analyze the causes and effects of World War I with emphasis on
a. militarism, imperialism, nationalism and alliances
b. the global scope, outcomes and human costs of the war
c. the role of new technologies and practices including the use of poison gas, trench warfare, machine guns, airplanes, submarines and tanks
d. the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations
  1. Smart Board Lesson Created by:  Thomas E Menches  SB
8. Analyze the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution including
a. the lack of economic, political and social reforms under the tsars
b. the impact of World War I
c. the emergence of Lenin, Stalin and the Bolsheviks
d. the rise of communism in Russia
9. Assess the global impact of post-World War I economic, social and political turmoil including
a. disarmament
b. worldwide depression
c. colonial rebellion
d. rise of militarist and totalitarian states in Europe and Asia
  1. New Deal Network: Six Lesson Plans on the New Deal       This website has several excellent lessons on the New Deal. The lessons are very hands-on, and can be used with a variety of age and ability groups. Some of the lessons include examination of African-American interviews, Eleanor Roosevelt letters, and political cartoons from this era. The lessons will enable the student to explore multimedia and primary sources from the New Deal time period. Students are asked to take several different approaches. Depending on which lesson you focus on, there are various techniques and strategies that are presented for understanding the New Deal. Some contain writing ideas, discussion ideas, and project ideas. Cooperative assignments, extensive research, and role-playing options are also presented. Some lessons provide rubrics. Most lessons can be geared towards grades 9-12 and several can be adjusted easily. All of the lessons are well written, with goals and procedures clearly stated. The lessons all take a few class periods to complete, making them appropriate for in-depth examination of this material.
  2. Events Leading up to World War II
    This is a detailed chronological listing of all the international events from 1931 to 1943 that led up to World War II. Altogether this excellent resource covers over 450 pages of information.
10. Analyze the causes of World War II including
a. appeasement
b. Axis expansion
c. the role of the Allies
  1. Chamberlain and Hitler, 1938 What was Chamberlain Trying to Do?                                                                                                  This lesson plan focuses on using primary sources to learn about appeasement. Students will be engaged in learning what happened and that the willing participants (Great Britain and France) were not just trying to avoid war but were actually trying to use logic in their deliberations. The length of the plan will vary based on prior assignments; however, it could be completed within a 90-minute block or one class period if some of the "tasks" are assigned as homework. The lesson can serve the purpose of providing background information and presenting the concept of "appeasement" and the role of the Allies. This is an easy to use lesson plan and one the students should find very interesting.
11. Analyze the consequences of World War II including
a. atomic weapons
b. civilian and military losses
c. the Holocaust and its impact
d. refugees and poverty
e. the United Nations
f. the establishment of the state of Israel
  1. The Arms Race - From Beginning to the End                           This lesson provides great learning tools for teachers to use when preparing a lesson on the arms race. One such tool is a spiral questioning worksheet, which may need to be reformatted by the teacher but has valuable content and well-structured questions. A PowerPoint is also provided that introduces political leaders involved in the Cold War. A wonderful timeline activity is provided that will keep students interest and encourage skill development. Lastly, provided is an assessment piece that identifies and makes available famous documents from the Cold War Era. Students are asked to make interpretations of the documents. This lesson has great flow and is very teacher-friendly.
  2. Teacher Resources for: The Rise of the Nazi Party              This site is an excellent resource for teaching the Holocaust. It has a large vocabulary list, hand-outs and resources along with several sub-sites with information about the gradual increase of Nazi anti-semitic policies. The worksheets and maps also provide many resources for teaching about the reasons for WWII in regards to the Versailles Treaty. Links to Lesson Plans are available.
12. Analyze the impact of conflicting political and economic ideologies after World War II that resulted in the Cold War including
a. Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe
b. the division of Germany
c. the emergence of NATO and the Warsaw Pact
d. the Chinese Communist Revolution
  1. Four Wheels to Survival: Civil Defense during the Cold War   This lesson plan has great activities and assessment pieces. This lesson is about identifying the purpose of the Civil Defense Administration in the context of the Cold War era. This lesson compares the ways government, those serving in the 1950's and today, communicate with the public about disasters by asking students to compare a pamphlet made by the CDA and one made by homeland security. The assessment asks students to prepare survival kits and create a pamphlet to distribute if a disaster happened today. The only weakness of this lesson is that the lesson procedures lack clarity.
13. Examine social, economic and political struggles resulting from colonialism and imperialism including
a. independence movements in India, Indochina and Africa
b. rise of dictatorships in former colonies
14. Explain the causes and consequences of the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War including
a. the arms build-up
b. ethnic unrest in the Soviet Union
c. independence movements in former Soviet satellites
d. global decline of communism
  1. National Security                                                                          Students compare/contrast recent espionage cases to the Rosenberg case in order to understand the benchmark goals of explaining how individual rights are relative and individual rights are balanced with the rights of others and the common good, with a goal of understanding the problems with national security today. Students will prepare research reports on a recent or current investigation into espionage by people working for the US government. Discussion questions are given as prompts, an extensive vocabulary list with definitions is provided, as well as reputable links to other sites. Teachers may access additional news and periodical resources via InfOhio.org. Suggestions for analyzing sources, an assessment rubric, and differentiation support are provided. It is recommended for grades 9-12 and can easily be adapted for differentiated instruction. This lesson could be completed in 1-2 class periods.
  2. The Cold War and Beyond                                                        Students will learn about the Cold War by conducting interviews with people who remember growing up during the 1950s and 1960s. Students begin by familiarizing themselves with cold war terminology before the interviews. Students will receive instructions on how to conduct and record a successful interview. After information is gathered, students will report their findings via an oral presentation. A rubric is provided to assist with grading. Class discussion questions and possible evaluations are provided. The lesson will take approximately 2-3 class periods to complete, with extensive work completed outside of class.
15. Examine regional and ethnic conflict in the post-Cold War era including
a. persistent conflict in the Middle East
b. ethnic strife in Europe, Africa and Asia
  1. Prospects for Peace in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.    Students will examine the root causes of the Israeli and Palestinian Conflict and analyze the Mitchell Report to design a new resolution to the Middle East crisis. This three to six day lesson provides discussion questions for students to research both sides of the conflict and past attempts for resolution. PBS interviews include George Mitchell and representations of the Israeli and Palestinian sides and linked websites are provided for resources. Students will work in cooperative groups representing a presidential investigation committee to construct a recommended peace plan. The groups will present its plan to a mock international conference.

People in Societies

1. Analyze examples of how people in different cultures view events from different perspectives including
a. creation of the state of Israel
b. partition of India and Pakistan
c. reunification of Germany
d. end of apartheid in South Africa
  1. Mapping the Middle East                                                                This lesson traces the historical development of Middle East after WWI as it relates to culture, politics, economics, and physical geography. Students work in teams. The lesson begins with a mapping activity and scaffold questions. In part two of the lesson, students work in groups to research, map and report on changes in the political map and factors related to boundaries, such as physical geography, and ethnicity. The site offers excellent resources which are easily accessible.
2. Analyze the results of political, economic, and social oppression and the violation of human rights including
a. the exploitation of indigenous peoples
b. the Holocaust and other acts of genocide, including those that have occurred in Armenia, Rwanda, Bosnia and Iraq
  1. The Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears: Cause, Effect and Justification                                                                                The purpose of the lesson is for students to use primary sources to learn about Cherokee land holdings before colonization through the mid 19th century to determine the impact of European settlement on the Cherokee people. The student will use maps, read an excerpt of a Presidential speech, examine oral testimony, and study a painting to examine the political reasoning behind the Indian Removal Act. The stated goal is to have the student to explore the public portrayal and understand the personal impact of the Trail of Tears on the Cherokee nation. The lesson integrates several different primary sources to put the Trail of Tears saga into historical context. Anticipated length is two class periods.
3. Explain how advances in communication and transportation have impacted
a. globalization
b. cooperation and conflict
c. the environment
d. collective security
e. popular culture
f. political systems
g. religion


1. Interpret data to make comparisons between and among countries and regions including
a. birth rates
b. death rates
c. infant mortality rates
d. education levels
e. per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
  1. Analysis of Human Population Growth                                      The purpose of this lesson is to examine and describe factors concerning the size and growth rate of the human population. The lesson begins with students examining the Population Clock website and describes what they are viewing. Students will complete an activity focusing on the scenario of "one billion". Students will then examine how quickly the world population is growing. A discussion of the population over time will encourage students to write an analysis of human population growth. The lesson will enable students to successfully collect and analyze population data and describe human population growth in writing. The estimated time is 3-4 class periods.
2. Explain how differing points of view play a role in conflicts over territory and resources.
  1. Jacksonian America and the Indian Removal Act of 1830/Territorial Conflict.                                                                     The lesson is set in the time period prior to the Civil War. The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to some of the injustices committed against the Native American Indians. Students are asked to examine several primary source documents, then participate in a class discussion about those documents and the events surrounding them. It is adaptable to looking at the influence of cultural perspectives on the actions of different groups. This could be used in conjunction with lesson about India, the Middle East or Africa in the 1960s. This lesson could also be used along with a study of racial injustices of the Civil Rights Movements of the 1960s, or in a larger discussion of ethnic struggles in a world history class. Adaptations for differentiated reading levels may be necessary due to the fact that most of the documents include complete speeches by politicians from the 19th century. The speeches most likely could be highlighted. The estimated duration of this lesson would be approximately 1-2 class periods.
  2. The United States / Mexico Border                           Students will research daily life, industries, and the political situation along the United States/Mexico border. They will conduct internet research to learn more about what it might be like to live at the border and the controversies surrounding U.S. government policies along the border. Students will conclude by creating visual presentations showcasing the things they have learned about the border. Reputable websites are provided for student research as well as questions for further discussion. The length of the lesson is approximately 3-4 class periods and is geared towards grades 9-12. A writing extension is suggested and a rubric is provided.
3. Explain how political and economic conditions, resources, geographic locations and cultures have contributed to cooperation and conflict.  
4. Explain the causes and consequences of urbanization including economic development, population growth and environmental change.  
5. Analyze the social, political, economic and environmental factors that have contributed to human migration now and in the past.
  1. Mapping Population Changes in the United States         Students will analyze the distribution of population change in specific regions in United States, and discuss the impact of this change for the future. The lesson asks the student to create a color-coded map that shows differences in population growth among the different states. This lesson requires 1 or 2 class periods. This resource is appropriate for a younger high school audience that needs to learn the basics of geography. 
  2. Human Migration: The Story of the Cultural Landscape    Students will analyze the reasons why people move. Students will use maps to think about where they might want to move, explain migration push and pull factors, and relate migration patterns to economic, political, social and environmental factors. Background information on migration is provided by the Population Reference Bureau. Students will use this information to research and answer constructed response questions for a migration in history. At the conclusion of the lesson, students reflect on their initial place to move to and are asked if they would still be willing to move if forced.


1. Describe costs and benefits of trade with regard to
a. standard of living
b. productive capacity
c. usage of productive resources
d. infrastructure
2. Explain how changing methods of production and a country’s productive resources affect how it answers the fundamental economic questions of what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce.  
3. Analyze characteristics of traditional, market, command and mixed economies with regard to
a. private property
b. freedom of enterprise
c. competition and consumer choice
d. the role of government
4. Analyze the economic costs and benefits of protectionism, tariffs, quotas and blockades on international trade.
  1. U.S. Farmers and the Cuban Embargo                                      The purpose of the lesson is for students to learn about the concepts of trade barriers through the example of American policy on trade with Cuba. This lesson directly addresses the economic costs and benefits of protectionism, quotas, and embargoes. Students review some basic economic concepts through a pop-up tool, read different perspectives on embargos, and synthesize their knowledge in a critical thinking paper. This lesson is an excellent way for students to master the concepts of embargos, tariffs, and quotas. The reading selections are lengthy and some modifications may be necessary to accommodate differentiated reading levels. Teachers may want to highlight sections of the readings and/or modify for those readers, and develop a pre-assessment and review core terminology as needed prior to beginning the main activity. The post-assessment asks students to apply knowledge from the lesson by hypothesizing about agricultural prices.
  2. Lowell Workers and Producers Respond to Incentives        This lesson serves as an introduction to the concepts of supply and demand. Several topics are covered in this lesson and could be broken up into several different days or even over several different units. This lesson may be used with advanced classes or a group of advanced students.
1. Explain how various systems of governments acquire, use and justify their power.  
2. Analyze the purposes, structures and functions of various systems of government including
a. absolute monarchies
b. constitutional monarchies
c. parliamentary democracies
d. presidential democracies
e. dictatorships
f. theocracies
Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities
1. Analyze and evaluate the influence of various forms of citizen action on public policy including
a. the French Revolution
b. the international movement to abolish the slave trade and slavery
c. the Russian Revolution
d. the independence movement in India
e. the fall of communism in Europe
f. the end of apartheid
  1. The Role of NATO                                                                    Students will analyze the political atmosphere of post-World War II Europe and the U.S. surrounding the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as its evolution into its current status. The lesson asks students to work in small collaborative groups and research several of the early historical events that led to the formation of NATO. Then to participate in a large group discussion of the role these events played. Students will also create a map in which they show the affiliation of those countries in NATO and those opposed to (or neutral to) NATO. The two day lesson includes answer keys and rubrics.
2. Describe and compare opportunities for citizen participation under different systems of government including
a. absolute monarchies
b. constitutional monarchies
c. parliamentary democracies
d. presidential democracies
e. dictatorships
f. theocracies
  1. Smart Board Lesson Created by:  Thomas E Menches  SB
  2. Introduction to Active Citizenship                                               The purpose of this lesson is to get students to understand the types of activities in which one may engage in in a democracy. An extension activity would be to have students compare this lesson with types of participation in other forms of government. Students at almost all levels can participate effectively. This activity calls for four class periods.
  3. Bringing Out the Vote                                                                    Students will analyze reasons why Americans do not vote in order to develop a persuasive flyer for use in their community to generate greater voter participation. This lesson requires one 50-minute classroom period, plus homework time to distribute the flyers. Since the 2004 election is "dated", this lesson could be adapted for upcoming elections at the national, state or local level or to compare this data to other elections throughout history and around the globe.
3. Analyze how governments and other groups have used propaganda to influence public opinion and behavior.
  1. Thinking Like a Citizen                                      Students will explore avenues of expressing and influencing public opinion about the hazards of smoking. Students will assume the role of a social activist and brainstorm in small groups on ways to increase media attention to prevent smoking. After a group discussion, students will develop and implement a public awareness campaign for the school. A lesson extension involving the entire school is suggested. Estimated duration of the lesson is 1 to 2 class periods.
  2. Powers of Persuasion - Poster Art of World War II (Propaganda)                                                                                   Students are asked to analyze propaganda posters from World War II using an analysis tool provided in the lesson. The posters are vivid and excellent examples of home front issues during the war. The posters may be viewed on line or may be printed and distributed to students. The lesson easily accommodates small group activities and can be accomplished in one or two class periods.
Social Studies Skills and Methods
1. Detect bias and propaganda in primary and secondary sources of information.
  1. Editorial Cartoon Tutorial                                                             Many teachers use editorial cartoons to incite thinking from their students. This instructional resource will help teachers optimize the knowledge gained through the analysis of editorial cartoons. Provided in this resource is a glossary of terms associated with the creation of a editorial cartoon, research tips to find relevant cartoons, and a guide to interpreting the content of the cartoon. This resource can be used by either teachers or students.
2. Evaluate the credibility of sources for
a. logical fallacies
b. consistency of arguments
c. unstated assumptions
d. bias
3. Analyze the reliability of sources for
a. accurate use of facts
b. adequate support of statements
c. date of publication
4. Develop and present a research project including
a. collection of data
b. narrowing and refining the topic
c. construction and support of the thesis