11th Grade Science

 

Life Sciences Physical Sciences Science and Technology Scientific Inquiry Scientific Ways of Knowing


 

Earth and Space Sciences

(Based on State of Ohio
Curriculum Standards)

 
1. Describe how the early Earth was different from the planet we live on today, and explain the formation of the Sun, Earth and the rest of the Solar System from a nebular cloud of dust and gas approximately 4.5 billion years ago.
  1. Solar System Exploration   This site was created by NASA and will cover quite a few state standards.  This is one of the sites you spend quite a bit of time with because it illustrates so much.
2. Analyze how the regular and predictable motions of Earth, Sun and Moon explain phenomena on Earth (e.g., seasons, tides, eclipses and phases of the Moon).
  1. Earth Live   View on line real time from a satellite the planet and determine for your self local and regional weather live. 4 star
  2. Why Eclipses of the Sun Happen
    This web site shows two animations to help explain what happens during an eclipse. One animation shows the Sun, Earth, and Moon, while the other animation shows the view from the Earth.
  3. 2D Eclipse Manipulate the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon to discover how eclipses happen. Observe the Moon and Sun from Earth during a lunar and solar eclipse, and understand the relationship between partial and total eclipses. The sizes of the three bodies and the Earth-Moon distance can be adjusted.
  4. 3D Eclipse  Observe the motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun in three dimensions to investigate the causes and frequency of eclipses. Observe Earth?s shadow crossing the Moon during a lunar eclipse, and the path of the Moon?s shadow during a solar eclipse. The angle of the Moon?s orbit can be adjusted, as well as the distance of the Moon from the Earth.
  5. Moon Phases  Gain an understanding of the phases of the Moon by observing the relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun, along with a view of the Moon from the Earth. Learn about the face of the Moon viewed from Earth by studying the revolution and rotation of the Earth and the Moon.
  6. Moonrise, Moonset, and Phases   Gain an understanding of the Moonrise and Moonset times by observing the relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun, along with a view of the Moon from the Earth. A line showing the horizon for a person standing on the Earth is displayed so the rise and set times can be easily recorded. Also, learn about the face of the Moon viewed from Earth by studying the revolution and rotation of the Earth and the Moon.
  7. Seasons Around the World  Use a three dimensional view of the Earth, Moon and Sun to explore seasonal changes at a variety of locations. Strengthen your knowledge of global climate patterns by comparing solar energy input at the Poles to the Equator. Manipulate Earth’s axis to increase or diminish seasonal changes
  8. Seasons in 3D  Gain an understanding of the causes of seasons by observing the Earth as it orbits the Sun in three dimensions. Create graphs of solar intensity and day length, and use collected data to describe and explain seasonal changes.
  9. Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun  Observe the motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun in three dimensions to explain Sunrise and Sunset, and to see how we define a day, a month, and a year. Compare times of Sunrise and Sunset for different dates and locations. Relate shadows to the position of the Sun in the sky, and relate shadows to compass directions.
  10. Seasons: Why do we have them?  Learn why the temperature in the summertime is higher than it is in the winter by studying the amount of light striking the Earth. Experiment with a plate detector to measure the amount of light striking the plate as the angle of the plate is adjusted (and then use a group of plates placed at different locations on the Earth) and measure the incoming radiation on each plate.
  11. Tides Gain an understanding of high, low, spring, and neap tides on the Earth by observing the tidal heights and the positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun. Tidal bulges can be observed from space, and water depths can be recorded from a dock by the ocean.
3. Explain heat and energy transfers in and out of the atmosphere and its involvement in weather and climate (radiation, conduction, convection and advection).  
4. Explain the impact of oceanic and atmospheric currents on weather and climate.
  1. Coastal Winds and Clouds  Learn about atmospheric conditions near a coast using basic observables: wind and temperature. Measure daily temperatures over both land and water near a coastline, along with the wind speed and direction. The conditions can be recorded at a variety of altitudes.
5. Use appropriate data to analyze and predict upcoming trends in global weather patterns (e.g., el Niño and la Niña, melting glaciers and icecaps, changes in ocean surface temperatures).
  1. el Nino
    The term El Niño (Spanish for "the Christ Child") refers to a warm ocean current that typically appears around Christmas-time and lasts for several months, but may persist into May or June. This website provides a general overview of the science of El Niño, and provides links to resources that discuss the weather's impact on floods, landslides, coastal hazards, climate and other information.

     
6. Explain how interactions among Earth’s lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere have resulted in the ongoing changes of the Earth system.  
7. Describe the effects of particulates and gases in the atmosphere including those originating from volcanic activity.  
8. Describe the normal adjustments of Earth, which may be hazardous for humans. Recognize that humans live at the interface between the atmosphere driven by solar energy and the upper mantle where convection creates changes in Earth's solid crust. Realize that as societies have grown, become stable and come to value aspects of the environment, vulnerability to natural processes of change has increased.  
9. Explain the effects of biomass and human activity on climate (e.g., climatic change, global warming).
  1. TOMS
    NASA information and pictures of ozone hole.
  2. Greenhouse Effect  Within this simulated region of land, daytime's rising temperature and the falling temperature at night can be measured, along with heat flow in and out of the system. The amount of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere can be adjusted over time, and the long term effects can be investigated.
10. Interpret weather maps and their symbols to predict changing weather conditions worldwide (e.g., monsoons, hurricanes and cyclones).
  1. Hurricane Motion  Use data from up to three weather stations to predict the motion of a hurricane. The wind speed and direction along with cloud cover is provided for each station using standard weather symbols.
11. Analyze how materials from human societies (e.g., radioactive waste, air pollution) affect both physical and chemical cycles of Earth.
  1. Atmosphere
    This fantastic site has loads of information on the atmosphere, wind, air pressure, air pollution, and air composition. Included are online lessons, pictures, diagrams, labs, a dictionary, a review test, and a printable teacher guide in Acrobat format
  2. Greenhouse Effect  Within this simulated region of land, daytime's rising temperature and the falling temperature at night can be measured, along with heat flow in and out of the system. The amount of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere can be adjusted over time, and the long term effects can be investigated.
  3. Water Pollution  Get to know the four main types of pollution present in the environment, and then look at a variety of real? world examples as you try to guess what type of pollution is represented by each situation. All of the real? world situations can be viewed every day in different parts of the world.
12. Explain ways in which humans have had a major effect on other species (e.g., the influence of humans on other organisms occurs through land use, which decreases space available to other species and pollution, which changes the chemical composition of air, soil and water).
  1. Raptors in the City
    This web site has information on the peregrine falcons nesting on the skyscrapers in Cleveland, Ohio. Included is information about their species, how they came back from near extinction, how they have adapted to the city environment, pictures from a falcon-cam, and news updates on specific falcons, their nesting, and chicks.
    (Submitted by: Deborah Mathies)
  2. Biomes of the World
    This site has loads of information and pictures on six biomes and six ecosystems of the world. This is a very in depth but useful site!
  3. Weather Maps   Learn about standard symbols used in meteorology to construct weather maps. Rain, sleet, snow, temperature, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, and atmospheric pressure can all be recorded at two different weather stations on a map.
13. Explain how human behavior affects the basic processes of natural ecosystems and the quality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere.
  1. Water Pollution  Get to know the four main types of pollution present in the environment, and then look at a variety of real? world examples as you try to guess what type of pollution is represented by each situation. All of the real? world situations can be viewed every day in different parts of the world.
14. Conclude that Earth has finite resources and explain that humans deplete some resources faster than they can be renewed.  
15. Use historical examples to show how new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often rejected by the social establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many different investigators (e.g., global warming, Heliocentric Theory, Theory of Continental Drift).  
16. Describe advances in earth and space science that have important long lasting effects on science and society (e.g., global warming, heliocentric theory, plate tectonics theory).
  1. Plate Tectonics Gizmo  Move the Earth at various locations to observe the effects of the motion of the techtonic plates, including volcanic eruptions. Information about each of the major types of plate collisions is shown, along with the typical location on the Earth.
  2. Plate Tectonics
    This fantastic site has loads of information on plate tectonics, including online lessons, pictures, diagrams, labs, a dictionary, a review test, and a printable teacher guide in Acrobat format.
  3. This Dynamic Earth
    This web site from the USGS has seven sections covering all aspects of plate tectonics, with great explanations, diagrams, and picture
    s.

Life Sciences

1. Describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life, and explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical and environmental conditions as well as the presence of pathogens.  
2. Recognize that chemical bonds of food molecules contain energy. Energy is released when the bonds of food molecules are broken and new compounds with lower energy bonds are formed. Some of this energy is released as thermal energy.
  1. Covalent Bonds  Choose a substance and move electrons between atoms to build covalent bonds and molecules. Observe the orbits of shared electrons in single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Compare the completed molecules to the corresponding Lewis diagrams.
3. Relate how birth rates, fertility rates and death rates are affected by various environmental factors.  
4. Examine the contributing factors of human population growth that impact natural systems such as levels of education, children in the labor force, education and employment of women, infant mortality rates, costs of raising children, birth control methods, and cultural norms.
  1. Human Population and Land Use
    Four-page USGS Fact Sheet describing and illustrating the need for urban growth studies.
     
5. Investigate the impact on the structure and stability of ecosystems due to changes in their biotic and abiotic components as a result of human activity.
  1. Biomes of the World
    This site has loads of information and pictures on six biomes and six ecosystems of the world. This is a very in depth but useful site!
6. Predict some possible impacts on an ecosystem with the introduction of a non-native species.
  1. Invasion
    This website contains information about many types of invasive species and the impacts they are having on ecosystems.
  2. Invasion 2
    The Pacific Southwest (California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona) is characterized by remarkable biodiversity in an unparalleled range of environments. But the region's biodiversity and the continued survival of functioning native ecosystems are threatened by the invasion of nonnative species. Once established, some invasive species have the ability to displace or replace native plant and animal species, disrupt nutrient and fire cycles, and cause changes in the pattern of plant succession. (WERC) researchers strive to improve the ability to detect, monitor, and predict the effects of invasive species. Equally important research is being conducted by WERC scientists on exotic animals.
     

 

7. Show how populations can increase through linear or exponential growth with corresponding effects on resource use and environmental pollution.  
8. Recognize that populations can reach or temporarily exceed the carrying capacity of a given environment. Show that the limitation is not just the availability of space but the number of organisms in relation to resources and the capacity of earth systems to support life.
  1. Food Chain  In this ecosystem consisting of hawks, snakes, rabbits and grass, the population of each species can be studied as part of a food chain. Disease can be introduced for any species, and the number of animals can be increased or decreased at any time, just like in the real world.
  2. Rabbit Population by Season  Observe the population of rabbits in an environment over many years. The land available to the rabbits can be adjusted, as well as the weather conditions, in order to compare the effects of urban sprawl and unusual weather on wildlife populations.
9. Give examples how human activity can accelerate rates of natural change and can have unforeseen consequences.
  1. Technology - Grade 11 - Technology and Society Interaction
    A2. Describe how change s caused by the use of technology can range from gradual to rapid, and from subtle to obvious
  2. Water Pollution  Get to know the four main types of pollution present in the environment, and then look at a variety of real? world examples as you try to guess what type of pollution is represented by each situation. All of the real? world situations can be viewed every day in different parts of the world.
10. Explain how environmental factors can influence heredity or development of organisms.  
11. Investigate issues of environmental quality at local, regional, national and global levels such as population growth, resource use, population distribution, over-consumption, the capacity of technology to solve problems, poverty, the role of economics, politics and different ways humans view the earth.  
12. Recognize that ecosystems change when significant climate changes occur or when one or more new species appear as a result of immigration or speciation.  
13. Describe how the process of evolution has changed the physical world over geologic time.
  1. GeoSciences  Virtual Museum of Fossils You will discover what appears to be an outstanding website for investigation.            4 Star
14. Describe how geologic time can be estimated by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations. Recognize that current methods include using the known decay rates of radioactive isotopes present in rocks to measure the time since the rock was formed.
  1. GeoSciences  Virtual Museum of Fossils You will discover what appears to be an outstanding website for investigation.            4 Star

Physical Sciences

1. Explain that elements with the same number of protons may or may not have the same mass and those with different masses (different numbers of neutrons) are called isotopes. Some of these are radioactive.
  1. Element Builder  Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements. As the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons changes, information such as the name and symbol of the element, the Z, N, and A numbers, the electron dot diagram, and the group and period from the periodic table are shown. The state of the element at room temperature is provided, along with the metallicity of the element.
  2. Half-life Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance. The half-life and the number of radioactive atoms can be adjusted, and theoretical or random decay can be observed. Data can be interpreted visually using a dynamic graph, a bar chart, and a table. Determine the half-lives of two sample isotopes as well as samples with randomly generated half-lives.
  3. Nuclear Decay  Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture. Write nuclear equations by determining the mass number and atomic number of daughter products and emitted particles.
  4. Isotopes and Radioactivity
    From the University of Colorado at Boulder, this site uses interactive Java applets and cartoon characters to introduce physics in a friendly way. This section covers isotopes and radioactivity.
  5. Periodic Table of Elements
    This site is an interactive periodic table of elements with hyperlinks to each element. The site is operated and maintained by the University of California for the US department of Energy.
2. Explain that humans have used unique bonding of carbon atoms to make a variety of molecules (e.g., plastics).
  1. Dehydration Synthesis  Build a glucose molecule, atom-by-atom, to learn about chemical bonds and the structure of glucose. Explore the processes of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in carbohydrate molecules.
  2. Ionic Bonds  Simulate ionic bonds between a variety of metals and nonmetals. Select a metal and a nonmetal, and transfer electrons from one to the other. Observe the effect of gaining and losing electrons on charge, and rearrange the atoms to represent the molecular structure. Additional metal and nonmetal atoms can be added to the screen, and the resulting chemical formula can be displayed.
3. Describe real world examples showing that all energy transformations tend toward disorganized states (e.g., fossil fuel combustion, food pyramids, electrical use).  
4. Explain how electric motors and generators work (e.g., relate that electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force). Investigate that electric charges in motion produce magnetic fields and a changing magnetic field creates an electric field.
  1. Intro to Electricity and Magnetism
    This interactive activity from ExploreScience covers topics such as static electricity, current, resistance, conductors, circuits, magnetism, the relationship between electricity and magnetism, and how generators work.
    Note: Every Gizmo in the library can be used for up to 5 minutes each per day.

Science and Technology

1. Identify that science and technology are essential social enterprises but alone they can only indicate what can happen, not what should happen. Realize the latter involves human decisions about the use of knowledge.  
2. Predict how decisions regarding the implementation of technologies involve the weighing of trade-offs between predicted positive and negative effects on the environment and/or humans.  
3. Explore and explain any given technology that may have a different value for different groups of people and at different points in time (e.g., new varieties of farm plants and animals have been engineered by manipulating their genetic instructions to reproduce new characteristics).  
4. Explain why basic concepts and principles of science and technology should be a part of active debate about the economics, policies, politics and ethics of various science-related and technology-related challenges.  
5. Investigate that all fuels (e.g., fossil, solar, nuclear) have advantages and disadvantages; therefore society must consider the trade-offs among them (e.g., economic costs and environmental impact).  
6. Research sources of energy beyond traditional fuels and the advantages, disadvantages and trade-offs society must consider when using alternative sources (e.g., biomass, solar, hybrid engines, wind, fuel cells).  

Scientific Inquiry

1. Formulate testable hypotheses. Develop and explain the appropriate procedures, controls and variables (dependent and independent) in scientific experimentation.  
2. Evaluate assumptions that have been used in reaching scientific conclusions.  
3. Design and carry out scientific inquiry (investigation), communicate and critique results through peer review.  
4. Explain why the methods of an investigation are based on the questions being asked.  
5. Summarize data and construct a reasonable argument based on those data and other known information.  

Scientific Ways of Knowing

1. Analyze a set of data to derive a hypothesis and apply that hypothesis to a similar phenomenon (e.g., biome data).
2. Apply scientific inquiry to evaluate results of scientific investigations, observations, theoretical models and the explanations proposed by other scientists.  
3. Demonstrate that scientific explanations adhere to established criteria, for example a proposed explanation must be logically consistent, it must abide by the rules of evidence and it must be open to questions and modifications.  
4. Explain why scientists can assume that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are the same everywhere.  
5. Recognize that bias affects outcomes. People tend to ignore evidence that challenges their beliefs but accept evidence that supports their beliefs. Scientist attempt to avoid bias in their work.  
6. Describe the strongly held traditions of science that serve to keep scientists within the bounds of ethical professional behavior.  
7. Explain how theories are judged by how well they fit with other theories, the range of included observations, how well they explain observations and how effective they are in predicting new findings.  
8. Explain that the decision to develop a new technology is influenced by societal opinions and demands and by cost benefit considerations.

 

 

9. Explain how natural and human-induced hazards present the need for humans to assess potential danger and risk. Many changes in the environment designed by humans bring benefits to society as well as cause risks.  
10. Describe costs and trade-offs of various hazards - ranging from those with minor risk to a few people, to major catastrophes with major risk to many people. The scale of events and the accuracy with which scientists and engineers can (and cannot) predict events are important considerations.  
11. Research the role of science and technology in careers that students plan to pursue.