10th Grade Language Arts

 

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text

Reading Applications: Literary Text

Writing Processes

Writing Applications

Writing Conventions

Research

Communications: Oral and Visual


 SB-You may need to download the smart board program to use some of the following links.  This may be done by clicking on the following download version 9.5 .  Once you have done this you will be able to view and use the smart board activity.    Every Smart Board activity has the letters SB  for Smart Board next to it. SB

 

(Based on State of Ohio
Curriculum Standards)

1. Define unknown words through context clues and the authorís use of comparison, contrast and cause and effect.
  1. Context Clues from TV411 -This interactive web site uses a slide show, quizzes, and graphic organizers to help students use context to figure out new words, practice using context clues, and define words in sentences.
2. Analyze the relationships of pairs of words in analogical statements (e.g., synonyms and antonyms, connotation and denotation) and infer word meanings from these relationships.  
3. Infer the literal and figurative meaning of words and phrases and discuss the function of figurative language, including metaphors, similes, idioms and puns.
  1. Swinging with the Times: Giving A Modern Slant to Favorite Children's Stories-In this lesson, students examine the many changes in the Tarzan character from Edgar Rice Burroughs' first novel to Disney's newest movie version to understand how children's movies are often used to mirror and promote cultural attitudes and beliefs. Students then adapt a favorite children's story to a modern setting, updating the characters and plot to better reflect the times.
  2. Mark Twain and American Humor  -This resource, maintained by the National Endowment for the Humanities, provides a three-part lesson in which students examine the structure and characterization of selected short stories and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County."
4. Analyze the ways that historical events influenced the English language.
  1. Hit or Myth: Exploring Mythology from Ancient Civilizations Around the World  - This resource uses a feature article from the New York Times to discuss the ways in which ancient myths are portrayed in popular culture. After reading several myths, students compare and contrast the myths of different ancient cultures and create children's books based on a myth.
5. Use knowledge of Greek, Latin and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes and suffixes to understand complex words and new subject-area vocabulary (e.g., unknown words in science, mathematics and social studies).
  1. Word Roots from EdHelper -This web site has over 20 printable worksheets and puzzles that cover word roots, prefixes, and suffixes, including Greek and Latin examples.
  2. The following ON LINE quizzes are a result of the following two people:  Created by:  Miss Stephanie Weston   Inspiration by Miss Harman English Teacher Willoughby-Eastlake Schools 

    1. Prefixes
    2. Suffixes
    3. Latin root words A-G

    4. Latin Root words H-O

    5. Latin Root words P-Z

    6. Number Prefixes

     

6. Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars.
  1. Choosing, Chatting, and Collecting: Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy -In the vocabulary self-collection strategy, students choose the words they want to learn, offer a rationale for their selection, and agree upon words to include in a classroom collection.
  2. ABC Bookmaking Builds Vocabulary in the Content Areas -This lesson engages and motivates students in building content area vocabulary through the creation of ABC books. Students select vocabulary words and terms related to a current unit of study in mathematics, science, social studies or other subjects.
  3. To Kill a Mockingbird-This resource is a study of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. The instructional unit, maintained by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, provides opportunities for students to analyze, interpret, and respond to language, meaning, and ideas in the novel by creating static and moving images. Content support, assessment guidelines, and links to other internet resources are also available at the website.
  4. All in a Day's Work: Modernizing Herman Melville's Bartleby the Scrivener -This lesson plan uses a passage from Herman Melville's 1856 tale, "Bartleby the Scrivener: A Story of Wall-street," to encourage literary response and creative writing. Students respond in writing to the short story by creating their own modern versions of the tale. This lesson allows students to apply narrative writing strategies in a creative context.
  5. Studying History, Part 1 -Discuss the terms cause, consequence, change and continuity using examples SB

     

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies

1. Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing and making inferences and drawing conclusions.
  1. Summarizing from TV411 -This interactive web site uses a slide show, quizzes, and graphic organizers to review the basics of summarizing, identify main idea statements and detail statements, and use categories to summarize lists
  2. To Kill a Mockingbird: A Historical Perspective -In this lesson, students gain a sense of the living history that surrounds the novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Through studying primary source materials from American Memory and other online resources, students grasp how historical events and human forces have influenced literary texts.
  3. Cross-cultural Dialogue -Cross-cultural Dialogue uses two personal narratives, written by a beginning English teacher in an unfamiliar culture, to teach point of view. Students read two narratives, first from the teacher's point of view and then from what she imagines to be her students' point of view.
  4. Monsters!-In this unit, students use literature and art to investigate the idea of "monsters." They begin by defining the idea of monster and reading and comparing two works, Beowulf and Grendel by John Gardner. As a final project, students create an artistic representation of their interpretation of a monster and write a story detailing its history.
2. Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media.
  1. Literacy Learning Resources from CBS and CNN -   This site has dozens of actual stories from CBS and CNN, including the full text, the abridged text, an outline, a video of the story, and the audio read aloud. After the student reads the story they can take online interactive quizzes over the material covering vocabulary, word selection, sequencing, conclusions, and more.
  2. William Golding/Lord of the Flies Trial Simulation -This resource, created by a group of high school teachers, details a simulation based on Lord of the Flies. Developed as a common project between social studies and English classes, students satisfy curricular requirements for both subjects as they role play a trial involving characters from the novel.
  3. Versed on the Disadvantaged: Using Poetry to Explore the Issues of Poverty -In this lesson, students begin by sharing their opinions and ideas about what it means to help someone in need. They then read and analyze a poem which illustrates the struggle of poor people.
3. Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on, looking back, note taking or summarizing what has been read so far in text.
  1. Critical Reading: Two Stories, Two Authors, Same Plot?-Many students often lack critical thinking skills to be able to analyze what they read. This lesson encourages students to read and respond critically to two different pieces of literature with the same title.  
4. Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others).
  1.  A Guide to Teaching Bruce Brooks -This study guide features three provocative coming-of-age novels by Bruce Brooks, which tell the moving stories of independent teenage characters struggling to cope with difficult circumstances. Students explore and discuss the challenges of adolescence as they read about the experiences of the main characters in Asylum for Nightface, What Hearts, and The Moves Make the Man. This guide may be used as part of a whole class novel study or with small student-led discussion groups. A brief synopsis of each novel, an author interview, discussion questions, and suggested activities for literary response are also provided.
5. Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task).  

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text

1. Identify and understand organizational patterns (e.g., cause-effect, problem-solution) and techniques, including repetition of ideas, syntax and word choice, that authors use to accomplish their purpose and reach their intended audience.
  1.  Once Upon a Time: Writing Stories about Reading -This resource uses a feature article from the New York Times to stimulate a discussion about one's life as a reader. Designated a promising practice, this lesson encourages students to take an inventory of their own histories as readers. After reading a personal essay written by Jamaica Kincaid, students extend this discussion by writing their own first person essays about what it means to be a reader.
2. Critique the treatment, scope and organization of ideas from multiple sources on the same topic.
  1. Figuring Somepin 'Bout the Great Depression  After examining primary sources, including songs, newspapers, interviews, and photographs of migrant farm workers in California during the Great Depression, students create a scrapbook from the point of view of a migrant worker, providing evidence of the colloquial speech used by the migrants and the issues affecting their lives.
3. Evaluate the effectiveness of information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs, diagrams, cutaways and overlays.
  1. Mathew Brady Bunch: Civil War Newspapers-This fascinating site uses the photographs of Matthew Brady to launch a historical investigation of the Civil War. Students learn how to analyze photographs, conduct research based on primary documents, and write newspaper articles from the perspective of the Civil War era. Students also learn how to convert their articles into web pages through HTML. Excellent supporting materials are provided for teachers and students, including reproducible handouts for peer editing and self-assessment. This site will be of high interest to curious students who will be able to use it with minimal teacher support.
4. Assess the adequacy, accuracy and appropriateness of an authorís details, identifying persuasive techniques (e.g., transfer, glittering generalities, bait and switch) and examples of propaganda, bias and stereotyping.
  1. The Red Badge of Courage: A New Kind of Realism -One early reviewer declared that The Red Badge of Courage "impels the feeling that the actual truth about a battle has never been guessed before." Increase your students' understanding of Crane's influences and how the novel's style helped convey a new realism.  
5. Analyze an authorís implicit and explicit argument, perspective or viewpoint in text.
  1.  Guilty/Not Guilty -Lessons included with this resource allow students to identify, discuss, and apply the elements, conventions, and language features of persuasive texts.
6. Identify appeals to authority, reason and emotion.
  1.  Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart: Teaching Through the Novel -This resource introduces students to Achebe's first novel and to his views on the role of the writer in his or her society. It can be used alone or in conjunction with the related lesson Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart: Oral and Literary Strategies . The resource provides lessons designed to familiarize students with some African literature, literary traditions, and culture. Students also analyze ways in which historical events are represented in fiction and learn to differentiate between historical accounts and fictionalized accounts of history. Teaching extensions and numerous links are provided to assist in teaching the lessons.
7. Analyze the effectiveness of the features (e.g., format, graphics, sequence, headers) used in various consumer documents (e.g., warranties, product information, instructional materials), functional or workplace documents (e.g., job-related materials, memoranda, instructions) and public documents (e.g., speeches or newspaper editorials).
  1. Showing Good Taste: Writing Thoughtful Restaurant Reviews in the Language Arts Classroom  -In this promising practice, students distinguish the important elements of well-written restaurant reviews by analyzing and evaluating reviews from The New York Times and by writing their own reviews of favorite dining locations. Students are encouraged to evaluate critical and persuasive texts as well as writing their own. This resource also includes extension activities, interdisciplinary connections, and links to supporting Internet sites.
8. Describe the features of rhetorical devices used in common types of public documents, including newspaper editorials and speeches.
  1. Movie transcripts   You will find the transcripts from many if not all movies made on this website.  You will notice how they identify and explain various types of characters.  4 Star
 

Reading Applications: Literary Text

1. Compare and contrast an authorís use of direct and indirect characterization, and ways in which characters reveal traits about themselves, including dialect, dramatic monologues and soliloquies.
  1. Do You Speak American? -This is the companion website for a film that takes us cross-country to examine the dynamic state of American English & ask: Why do Maine lobstermen & Texas cowboys speak English so differently? How many varieties of American English are there? Is TV making us all sound the same? Topics include 100 common mispronunciations, how language is changing, local color in American literature, & regional writers.
  2. What Makes a Good Short Story?-This resource provides a solid introduction to commonly taught literary elements (i.e., point of view, character development, theme and setting) through an analysis of the short story, "A Jury of Her Peers" by Susan Glaspell. At the site, links to excellent supplementary resources including historical essays, literary theory, and an author biography are provided. These additional resources explore and extend topics and themes introduced in the story.
  3. Teaching Cora Unashamed -This resource provides an online teacher's guide for use with Langston Hughes's short story, "Cora Unashamed," and the film adaptation of the same name, created by Masterpiece Theater. Cora Unashamed is an integrated language arts unit of study that uses visual media to extend students' understanding of the short story. Students are able to examine the social and cultural influences that impacted Hughes's writing and compare events from the short story with the film.
  4. Movie transcripts   You will find the transcripts from many if not all movies made on this website.  You will notice how they identify and explain various types of characters.  4 Star
2. Analyze the features of setting and their importance in a literary text.
  1.  The "Secret Society" and FitzGerald's The Great Gatsby -In this lesson, students will: (1) engage in practical textual analysis and critical thinking; (2) reflect on the class struggles of early twentieth century; (3) combine critical thinking, textual analysis, and imaginative writing skills; (4) write a "credo" for the "secret society" implied in The Great Gatsby. This lesson also includes links to essays and articles about the novel and the author, student activity sheets, and ideas for extending student learning.
3. Distinguish how conflicts, parallel plots and subplots affect the pacing of action in literary text.
  1.  Id, Ego, and Superego in Dr. Seuss's Cat in the Hat -In this lesson, The Cat in the Hat is used as a primer to teach students how to analyze a literary work using the literary tools of plot, theme, characterization, and psychoanalytical criticism.
4. Interpret universal themes across different works by the same author or by different authors.
  1.  Black and Blue: Jazz in Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man -Ralph Ellison, musician-turned-writer, wrote Invisible Man like a jazz composition. The novel has many solo parts, and the events seem improvised as the unnamed main character goes from the south to the north, with many ups and downs.
  2. Letters from Emily Dickinson: 'Will you be my preceptor?'-In this curriculum unit, students explore Emily Dickinson's poetry as well as her personal correspondence to her editor and sister-in-law. Working individually and in groups, students reflect on Dickinson's views and the process by which she writes.
  3. Tennessee Williams: Exploring The American Dream -In this lesson on Tennessee Williams, students examine the "American Dream" through lyric form, mythology and drama. Students read one or more of Williams plays, and in small groups develop and perform interpretations of selected scenes. Using the internet, teams conduct research to answer questions about the author and his influence on American theater.
5. Analyze how an authorís choice of genre affects the expression of a theme or topic.
  1.  Exploring Satire with Shrek -In this lesson, students use the familiar characteristics of fairy tales, the movie Shrek, which satirizes fairy tale traditions, as an introduction to the satirical techniques of exaggeration, incongruity, reversal, and parody. Students brainstorm fairy tale characteristics and identify the satirical techniques used to present them in the movie. Using the techniques they have learned, students create their own satirical versions of a traditional fairy tale.
  2. Paying Attention to Technology: Exploring a Fictional Technology -From personal computers to the latest electronic gadgetry for the kitchen, garage, or home entertainment center, Americans seem to have fallen in love with just about anything that will make our high-tech lifestyles more comfortable, convenient, and enjoyable.
  3. Mark Twain -Discover the true Mark Twain through his writing and the collection of artifacts found at this web site. Five classroom activities teach students the importance of observation in writing, how historical issues and events impact an author's writing, and how humor and satire influence storytelling.
  4. Monsters and Myths: Scripts and Sculpts -Monsters and Myths: Scripts and Sculpts is a comprehensive interdisciplinary unit pairing English Language Arts and the fine arts. Created by classroom teachers, this unit provides opportunities to develop students' use of critical thinking skills by comparing and contrasting mythic tales, reviewing different versions of the same story, and responding to literature in a variety of ways.
6. Explain how literary techniques, including foreshadowing and flashback, are used to shape the plot of a literary text.
  1.  Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart: Oral and Literary Strategies  -This resource introduces students to Chinua Achebe's first novel and to strategies of close reading and textual analysis. It can be used alone or in conjunction with the related lesson Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart: Teaching Through the Novel . This resource helps students to: describe some elements of European and African literary traditions; explain aspects of Nigerian culture and history; understand how historical events are represented in fiction; identify literary devices and orality in literature understand narrative and audience perspective as culturally-positioned; and recognize strategies that authors use to invoke and speak to specific audiences. This resource provides solid lessons, which engage students in geographic explorations and meaningful discussions about the author, the novel, and the impact of historical events on African literary traditions. Links to excellent online resources related to the novel, British colonialism, and African traditions are also available at the website.
7. Recognize how irony is used in a literary text.
  1. A Venetian Carnival : The Cask of Amontillado -This resource is a literary unit that is based on "The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe. During the unit, students read and analyze the story for basic literary elements and discuss ironic meanings of words and phrases. The unit extends learning by providing opportunities, via the Internet, for students to research the season of carnival and how it is celebrated around the world. Students may also create their own carnival masks. Detailed lesson plans, a sample quiz, and an assessment rubric for the unit are included at the website.
8. Analyze the authorís use of point of view, mood and tone.
  1.  Identity, Oppression, and Protest: To Kill a Mocking Bird and the Blues -African American history during the Jim Crow era includes encounters with poverty, racism, disrespect, and protest. Harper Lee develops all four of these themes in her famous 1960 novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. To help students understand these ideas, this lesson incorporates the blues and other literature of the time.
9. Explain how authors use symbols to create broader meanings.
  1. Language Arts: Shakespeare's Sonnets -One of the difficulties teachers face when they teach Shakespeare is language accessibility. Twenty-first century students often have difficulty understanding the words, and so they miss the meaning of his plays and sonnets.  
10. Describe the effect of using sound devices in literary texts (e.g., to create rhythm, to appeal to the senses or to establish mood).
  1. Mark Twain, the Lincoln of Our Literature  -This unit focuses on the unique genius of autobiographer, satirist, humorist, and novelist Mark Twain. Students explore the American "voices" through which Twain translates, assails, contours, and celebrates aspects of American life and the American character.  
11. Explain ways in which an author develops a point of view and style (e.g., figurative language, sentence structure and tone), and cite specific examples from the text.
  1. Heroes Are Made of This: Studying the Character of Heroes -Designed to explore the hero and the heroic in literature, this lesson provides a sequence of activities, which range from a class discussion defining heroism to using character maps and Venn diagrams to compare multiple characters from one or more works of literature.
  2. The Tell-Tale Hearts of Writers: Exploring the Lives of Authors Through Their Literature  -In this promising practice lesson, students use a piece of literature by and an article about Edgar Allan Poe to investigate the relationship between word choice and the reader's mood and interpretation of a piece of writing. Each student then creates a visual display that examines a favorite writer through biographical information, analysis of quotations about the author and his or her works, and interpretation of a piece of the author's writing. This resource helps students read literary works with an attention to the choices the author makes during the creative writing process. This resource also includes extension activities, interdisciplinary connections, and links to supporting internet sites.

Writing Processes

1. Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material, and keep a list of writing ideas.
  1. Writing for Publication- This resource offers strategies for teaching creative writing. This instructional unit, maintained by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, allows students to write and publish an original story. Students are encouraged to experiment with a variety of plot structures. Sample plot structures are available at the site.
2. Determine the usefulness of and apply appropriate pre-writing tasks (e.g., background reading, interviews or surveys).
  1.  Making Connections to Myth and Folktale: The Many Ways to Rainy Mountain-In The Way to Rainy Mountain, N. Scott Momaday links the survival of his people to their ability to remember, preserve, and pass on stories. Taking the idea one step further, Momaday models necessary personal involvement in the stories.
  2. Studying History, Part 2 -Understand the differences between types of sources.  SB
3. Establish and develop a clear thesis statement for informational writing or a clear plan or outline for narrative writing.
  1. Techniques for Writing: Writing Thesis Statements for Essays -This web site has extensive information on writing a thesis as well as interactive exercises the students can take online to check their understanding.
  2. Generation TeXt: Exploring the Differences Between Conversational and Formal Writing Styles -This lesson prompts students to consider the appropriateness of different writing styles based on purpose and audience. Students begin by discussing the influence text messaging has had on academic writing.
4. Determine a purpose and audience and plan strategies (e.g., adapting focus, content structure, and point of view) to address purpose and audience.
  1. Communicating    You have the opportunity to create a Poster, Newspaper and or a Cartoon.  This website is very good and will allow students to learn how to transform their ideas to a hard copy that they may printout.   This is great for an LCD projector or a computer lab.  4 Star 
  2. Communicating through Garfield  Your students may create a cartoon and depending on your experience with technology they may create a complete story.  You will only be limited by your technology background and your imagination.  4 Star 
  3. Purpose and Audience -This online study guide from Encyclopedia Britannica is on purpose and audience. It covers an explanation for determining why we write and to whom, in a variety of settings and styles.
  4. What's the Problem?-The aim of this lesson is to help students develop their persuasive writing and information gathering skills using various forms of information and communication technology.
5. Use organizational strategies (e.g., notes, outlines) to plan writing.
  1. Telling Your Story-Created and reviewed by teams of educators, this writing activity describes a lesson in which students use historical information from a museum exhibit to write a fictional story from the point of view of someone who lived in the past. Drawn from the curriculum guide, Collecting Their Thoughts: Using Museums as Resources for Student Writing, which was developed by the Smithsonian Institute, this resource encourages the use of museum artwork, exhibits, and artifacts as a basis for student writing. Information for obtaining a copy of this publication is offered at the website. Links to online exhibits, such as online versions of the National Museum of American Art exhibitions, allow this activity to be completed as part of a virtual field trip.
6. Organize writing to create a coherent whole with an effective and engaging introduction, body and conclusion, and a closing sentence that summarizes, extends or elaborates on points or ideas in the writing.
  1. Guide to Grammar   You will find that this is an outstanding site to assist you and your students in learning proper grammar  4 Star
  2. Poem writing   Create your own "I Am" poem by filling in each blank. Be sure to select all the words (and parentheses) that are already in each blank before entering your own words.  4 Star
7. Use a variety of sentence structures and lengths (e.g., simple, compound and complex sentences; parallel or repetitive sentence structure).  
8. Use paragraph form in writing, including topic sentences that arrange paragraphs in a logical sequence, using effective transitions and closing sentences and maintaining coherence across the whole through the use of parallel structures.
  1. Techniques for Writing: Writing Topic Sentences for Paragraphs -This web site has extensive information on writing a topic sentence as well as interactive exercises the students can take online to check their understanding.
  2. Paragraph Organization -This online study guide from Encyclopedia Britannica is on paragraph organization. It includes a discussion of the creation of logical and cohesive paragraphs, including topic sentences, paragraph unity, coherence, and transitions.
9. Use language, including precise language, action verbs, sensory details and colorful modifiers, and style as appropriate to audience and purpose, and use techniques to convey a personal style and voice.
  1. Techniques for Writing: Using Specific Language -This web site has extensive information on precise language as well as interactive exercises the students can take online to check their understanding.
  2. Choosing the Best Verb: An Active and Passive Voice Mini-lesson -For most students, speech and informal writing flow naturally. Yet students often struggle with formal or academic writing. This mini-lesson explores verb choice in a variety of online resources, then encourages students to draw conclusions about verb use which they can apply to their own writing.
10. Use available technology to compose text.  
11. Reread and analyze clarity of writing, consistency of point of view and effectiveness of organizational structure.
  1. The Shortest Distance Between Two Points -This lesson integrates technical writing, specifically producing memos, with revising and editing strategies. Students assume the role of mechanical drafters and develop a revised set of instructions for a drafting communique.  
12. Add and delete information and details to better elaborate on stated central idea and more effectively accomplish purpose.
  1. Techniques for Writing: Giving Examples and Explanations -This web site has extensive information on elaborating on an idea as well as interactive exercises the students can take online to check their understanding.
13. Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs and add transitional words and phrases to clarify meaning and maintain consistent style, tone and voice.
  1.  A Trip to the Baseball Hall of Fame : Writing a Persuasive Letter -Created by a high school English teacher, this lesson plan is designed to teach high school students some of the basic research skills needed to find information using the internet. The goal of the lesson is to use the Internet to review and gather information and to analyze the techniques used to persuade internet users. Centered around the theme of baseball, the activities include researching the Baseball Hall of Fame and writing a persuasive letter to a baseball coach.
14. Use resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionaries and thesauruses) to select effective and precise vocabulary that maintains consistent style, tone and voice.
  1. Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary and Thesaurus -Excellent dictionary and thesaurus. Easy to use with lots of good information on each word. This site will even pronounce the word for you.
15. Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization), identify and correct fragments and run-ons and eliminate inappropriate slang or informal language.
  1. Activities for ESL/EFL Students -Don't be fooled by the name of this site. It is an excellent resource for all students of the English language. There are over 1,000 quizzes, exercises and puzzles on every topic of grammar, punctuation, writing, and more. Begin by looking through the Easy, Medium, and Difficult Grammar Quizzes.
  2. Pressure Writing -Students learn to write under stressful circumstances and revise work as information warrants. SB
16. Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing.
  1. Peer Editing Strategies -This site has several articles on peer editing such as "Do's and Don'ts" and a peer editing guide.
  2. Techniques for Writing: Giving and Receiving Peer Responses  -This page has good guidelines for giving and receiving peer feedback on writing.
17. Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others) writing that follows a manuscript form appropriate for the purpose, which could include such techniques as electronic resources, principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing and columns) and graphics (e.g., drawings, charts and graphs) to enhance the final product.
  1. Arguing a Point-This resource is an instructional unit in which students listen to and discuss the ideas, language, and structure in a selection of oral texts that present strong arguments. 
  2. Create your own Cartoons   This site will allow the student to design and create their own cartoons and printout a story.  You will discover that there is much detail to this page.  Students may use their imagination and be totally engaged when learning. 4 Star

Writing Applications

1. Write narratives that:
a. sustain reader interest by pacing action and developing an engaging plot (e.g., tension and suspense);
b. use a range of strategies and literary devices including figurative language and specific narration; and
c. include an organized, well-developed structure.
  1. The Year I Was Born: An Autobiographical Research Project -In this autobiography with a twist, students conduct interviews and do research using web and print materials to find details about what was going on internationally, nationally, locally during the year that they were born.
  2. Spend a Day in My Shoes: Exploring the Role of Perspective in Narrative -In To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus explains to Scout that "You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view...until you climb into his skin and walk around in it" (36). Using this quotation as a springboard, students explore writers' use of point of view and draft original stories from someone else's perspective.
2. Write responses to literature that organize an insightful interpretation around several clear ideas, premises or images and support judgments with specific references to the original text, to other texts, authors and to prior knowledge.
  1. Outside In: Finding A Characterís Heart Through Art -Alienation is an important theme in contemporary literature, and itís an idea that adolescents need to confront in order to fully understand what it means to be a human being in our modern world.
  2. Teaching The Song of the Lark -This resource provides an online teacher's guide for use with Willa Cather's novel The Song of the Lark and the film adaptation of the same name, created by Masterpiece Theater. Teaching The Song of the Lark presents an integrated study that uses visual media to extend students' understanding of the novel.
3. Write business letters, letters to the editor and job applications that:
a. address audience needs, stated purpose and context in a clear and efficient manner;
b. follow the conventional style appropriate to the text using proper technical terms;
c. include appropriate facts and details;
d. exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies; and
e. provide a sense of closure to the writing.
  1. Letter Writing -This online study guide from Encyclopedia Britannica is on writing letters for a variety of purposes. Covers job applications, letters to the editor, letters asking for information, and personal letters.
4. Write informational essays or reports, including research that:
a. pose relevant and tightly drawn questions that engage the reader.
b. provide a clear and accurate perspective on the subject.
c. create an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience and context.
d. support the main ideas with facts, details, examples and explanations from sources; and
e. document sources and include bibliographies.
  1. Performing Julius Caesar- This resource is a study of the Shakespearean play, Julius Caesar. The instructional unit, maintained by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, provides opportunities for students to analyze, interpret, and respond to language, meaning, and ideas in the play. Content support, assessment guidelines, and links to other internet resources are also available at the website.
  2. Guide to Grammar   You will find that this is an outstanding site to assist you and your students in learning proper grammar  4 Star
5. Write persuasive compositions that:
a. support arguments with detailed evidence;
b. exclude irrelevant information; and
c. cite sources of information.
  1. Reader Response in Hypertext: Making Personal Connections to Literature -In this lesson, students choose four quotations to inspire their personal responses to a novel that they have read. Students write a narrative of place, complete a character sketch, create an extended metaphor poem and write a persuasive essay.
6. Produce informal writings (e.g., journals, notes and poems) for various purposes.
  1.  The Pros and Cons of Discussion -In this lesson, students use a discussion web to engage in meaningful discussions. Students work in groups to answer the question, "Are people equal?," analyzing all sides of the response, forming a consensus, and presenting it to the class.
  2. Exploring Literature through Letter Writing Groups -In this lesson, students discuss literature through a series of letter exchanges. Though not a new idea, this lesson provides an alternative to traditional literature discussion groups.

Writing Conventions

1. Use correct spelling conventions.
  1. Spelling -This web site has extensive information on spelling as well as quizzes the students can take online to check their understanding.
2. Use correct capitalization and punctuation.
  1. Capitalization and Punctuation -This web site has extensive information on capitalization and punctuation as well as quizzes the students can take online to check their understanding.
  2. Capitalization -This is an excellent site explaining capitalization. Here you will find explanations, an online quiz, and a fantastic PowerPoint presentation you can download for use in class.
  3. Punctuation Marks -This is an excellent site explaining punctuation. Here you will find explanations, online quizzes, and great PowerPoint presentations you can download for use in class.
  4. Commas -This is a great interactive review site all about commas. Included are factsheets, games, quizzes, and worksheets.
3. Use clauses (e.g., main, subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerund, infinitive, participial).
  1. Embedded Thoughts -This web site has extensive information on clauses as well as quizzes the students can take online to check their understanding.
4. Use parallel structure to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
  1. Consistency -This web site has extensive information on consistency as well as quizzes the students can take online to check their understanding. Section 3 specifically deals with parallel structure.
5. Use proper placement of modifiers.
  1. Completers and Modifiers -This web site has extensive information on modifiers as well as quizzes the students can take online to check their understanding.

Research

1. Compose open-ended questions for research, assigned or personal interest, and modify questions as necessary during inquiry and investigation to narrow the focus or extend the investigation.
  1.  Local Retreats: Exploring Potential Tourist Attractions in Your Community -In this lesson, students consider how some of their favorite local places might be interesting spots for visitors to their community to see. Students begin the lesson by reading an article from the New York Times about unlikely tourist attractions in the boroughs of New York. After reading the article and playing a cooperative game, students identify locations in their community to investigate.
2. Identify appropriate sources and gather relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources).
  1. Independent Study Project: The Killer Angels-In this independent research module, students investigate the individuals and events related to the Battle of Gettysburg in order to enhance their understanding of The Killer Angels. Through their research, students gain insight about how the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the setting impact the text.
  2. Writing a Short Story Based on Kindred -Created by a high school English teacher, this language arts project integrates literature study, creative writing, and technology. Based on Kindred, a story about slavery in the United States written by Octavia Butler, the unit uses literature to examine the impact of historical events and social norms on personal lives.
3. Determine the accuracy of sources and the credibility of the author by analyzing the sourcesí validity (e.g., authority, accuracy, objectivity, publication date and coverage, etc.).
  1. Hoax? Scholarly Research? Personal Opinion? You Decide! -This lesson is designed to help students determine the validity of information that is presented to them on the Internet. After reviewing a series of evaluation techniques for online resources, students form groups to assess selected websites based on accuracy and authority, advocacy and objectivity, and currency and coverage.
  2. Searching with Certainty: Critically Evaluating Internet Search Methods and Sources - This lesson focuses on ways students can learn to evaluate Internet resources used for research papers. Using their own topics of research, students explore ways to determine credibility in sources of information. They evaluate three Internet search methods by using a search engine, examining a subject directory, and contacting an online reference librarian. Students evaluate and rate each technique based on a set of pre-determined questions.
4. Evaluate and systematically organize important information, and select appropriate sources to support central ideas, concepts and themes.
  1.  Violent Delights and Violent Ends: Romeo and Juliet -Reading Shakespeare's plays presents many challenges for students. This resource describes engaging activities to familiarize students with the plot and language of Romeo and Juliet. Students work collaboratively to conduct preparatory research on Shakespeare's world. Each research group creates and presents a multimedia presentation. After reading the play, students depict a scene from Romeo and Juliet in a way that demonstrates understanding of key ideas and language in the play. Other post-reading activities and suggestions for assessment are also provided at the website.
5. Integrate quotations and citations into written text to maintain a flow of ideas.
  1. KnightCite Citation Machine -A free bibliography creation tool. The user can choose the citation style from MLA, APA, or Chicago. They are prompted for information regarding the resource used, and then are given the citation in proper format.
    (Submitted by: Paula Cline)
  2. Who Said That?-In this instructional resource, students take on the role of an editor as they review informational texts intended for publication. After collecting a variety of published materials, including newspapers, magazines, books, copies of public lectures, scientific journals, and documents downloaded from the Internet, student examine ways in which attribution is given to individuals for ideas used in the published pieces. Working in small groups, students review a selection of the documents, focusing on the types of sources that are used in each. Students also learn to identify examples of information that should be appropriately cited.
6. Use style guides to produce oral and written reports that give proper credit for sources, and include an acceptable format for source acknowledgement.  
7. Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information that supports a clear position about the topic or research question and to maintain an appropriate balance between researched information and original ideas.
  1. Dramatic Storytelling in the English Classroom : Hospital Fire Role Play - Practical approaches to using drama and story in the English classroom are provided through role play and reflection. A role play about fire in a major hospital lets students take on the parts of hospital employees for the investigation following the fire. Students are expected to provide specific details and to develop a character. Links to rich sources for use in the language arts classroom are included.
  2. Principles of Giving a Speech -Learn some basic skills for giving a speech.  SB

Communications: Oral and Visual

1. Apply active listening strategies (e.g., monitoring message for clarity, selecting and organizing essential information, noting cues such as changes in pace) in a variety of settings.
  1. Video     Students who are responsible for a school activity demonstrate the various potential project roles, responsibilities of group members and various mean...
2. Interpret types of arguments used by the speaker such as authority and appeals to audience.  
3. Evaluate the credibility of the speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material) and recognize fallacies of reasoning used in presentations and media messages.  
4. Identify how language choice and delivery styles (e.g., repetition, appeal to emotion, eye contact) contribute to meaning.  
5. Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language and select language appropriate to purpose and audience.  
6. Adjust volume, phrasing, enunciation, voice modulation and inflection to stress important ideas and impact audience response.  
7. Vary language choices as appropriate to the context of the speech.  
8. Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that:
a. demonstrate an understanding of the topic and present events or ideas in a logical sequence;
b. support the controlling idea or thesis with well-chosen and relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes;
c. include an effective introduction and conclusion and use a consistent organizational structure (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution);
d. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology to enhance presentation; and
e. draw from multiple sources, including both primary and secondary sources, and identify sources used.
 
9. Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations that convey relevant information and descriptive details.
  1.  Radio Free School: Writing News for Radio-In this lesson, students explore several radio news formats, styles, and sequences, and then write segments for a student-centered news radio program. After reading an article about news radio programming in Afghanistan, students plan and present a radio news show. This lesson provides opportunities to integrate writing and communication skills with social themes and content area topics.
10. Deliver persuasive presentations that:
a. establish and develop a logical and controlled argument;
b. include relevant evidence, differentiating between evidence and opinion, to support a position and to address counter-arguments or listener bias;
c. use persuasive strategies, such as rhetorical devices, anecdotes and appeals to emotion, authority and reason; and
d. consistently use common organizational structures as appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution); and
e. use speaking techniques (e.g., reasoning, emotional appeal, case studies or analogies).