10th Grade Social Studies

 

People in Societies Geography Economics Government Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities


 

History

(Based on State of Ohio
Curriculum Standards)

1. Explain the effects of industrialization in the United States in the 19th century including
     a. changes in work and the workplace
b. immigration and child labor and their impact on the labor force
c. modernization of agriculture
d. urbanization
e. the emergence of a middle class and its impact on leisure, art, music, literature and other aspects of culture
  1. Who Really Built America                                                                         Students will use numerous primary source materials to understand child labor in America from 1880-1920. Students will be placed in 3 person teams and will need to determine specific roles amongst themselves. Each team is expected to gain a personal perspective on what it was like to be a child in a growing, industrial society. Students are expected to make their own primary source documents in the form of a team journal throughout the project. This is an extensive lesson, taking up to 6 weeks. It may be challenging for the suggested target audience of grades 7/8, but can be adjusted for high school grades. There is preparation required. Reading may need to be adapted for low level readers. Grading is left to the individual teacher. Resources, links and ideas, however, can be attained.
  2. Comparing Primary Sources from the Industrial Revolution                        Using this lesson teacher’s will encourage students to analyze, evaluate and describe primary sources about industrialization. Two activities are used in this lesson to build understanding. The first is a photographic analysis group activity, in which groups of students build connections and make generalizations by exploring multiple photographic documents. The second technique is spiral questioning, which advances the level of questioning from identification questions to analysis, evaluation and inference questions. In addition, this lesson offers unique ideas for generating assessments. This resource will insight new ideas for teachers who choose to investigate it.
  3. History of American Child Labor                                                                  Using this resource social studies student’s will gain a true understanding of child labor, both as an historical and social issue. Students are asked to critically examine, respond to and report on photographs as historical evidence. Using the work of reformer/photographer Lewis Hine students will be able to make a present correlation between the past and the present. The author of this lesson includes researched and credible graphic tools to incite background knowledge and to guide reading comprehension. Also a wonderful PowerPoint of Lewis Hine’s work has been created for teacher use. The assessment in this lesson expresses high expectations for students and provides scoring guidelines for the teacher.
  4. Child Labor in America                                                                                  This is a web-based lesson that focuses on the social impacts child labor during the industrialization of the work force in 19th Century America. If a class does not have access to enough computers, the lesson could be adapted by printing out a suitable number of copies for distribution. Students are asked to evaluate primary sources from the Library of Congress (online) and formulate their own open-ended questions as they analyze these documents. This lesson is designed to be completed in cooperative learning groups, but could be adapted to be done as an individual assignment, if necessary. This lesson is designed to help a student understand the connections that exist between social, economic and political history.
  5. Changing American Values Victorian vs. Modern America in Catalogs         This lesson plan presents a nice collection of resources to describe the social changes that resulted in America because of Industrialization. This lesson would be a great addition to a unit about industrialization, but not meant to be used outside the context of a unit. This lesson provides primary documents that accompany an activity that requires students to compare a Sears and Roebuck advertisement of the 1920's with an advertisement from today. Discussion generated from this lesson will ask students to analyze how the images have affected social norms or created standardization. The author of this lesson provides a series of questions to use when assessing students on knowledge gained from the activities performed in the lesson. Teachers will need to build upon these guiding questions to build an authentic assessment that adequately gauges student understanding of the standard.

 

2. Analyze the impact of industrialization and the modern corporation in the United States on economic and political practices with emphasis on
a. laissez-faire policies
b. monopolies
c. standard of living
  1. American Labor Movement
    This lesson illuminates factors of industrialization including the role of labor unions, especially how unions can influence government policy.Students will read passages selected from "The Flivver King", view the films "Modern Times" and "Brave New World" and analyze primary source photographs and documents depicting social, political, and economic effects of mass production and the role of capital and labor upon American society. Suggested time is two to three 45 minute classes however it could take 5 class periods. Students are expected to write a position paper siding with either management or labor on the issue of working conditions. While the lesson refers to specific literary and film resources, the teacher will need to develop specific steps for lesson delivery. The analysis guide for study of photographs displayed on the website provides great practice for teaching primary sources.
 

3. Analyze the reasons for the rise and growth of labor organizations in the United States (i.e., Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations) including
a. unregulated working conditions
b. laissez-faire policies toward big business
c. violence toward supporters of organized labor

  1. Immigration at the Turn of the Century  This link provides two concise histories of human experiences during the second wave of immigration. The readings are visually appealing with many primary photographs and data charts. The resource is cited and reflects research that is widely known and generally accepted. These resources will be a great addition to any teachers lesson plan. These content resources will hold the interest of a majority of students and promotes student activity and reflection
  2. Immigration at the Turn of the 20th Century  
4. Explain the goals and outcomes of the late 19th and early 20th century reform movements of Populism and Progressivism with emphasis on
a. urban reforms
b. conservation
c. business regulation and antitrust legislation
d. the movement for public schooling
e. the regulation of child labor
  1. Akron Police Crash with Strikers: Labor Movement  This content resource is provided by the History Works project. This project collects and identifies and analyzes quality primary documents to determine their usability in the social studies classroom. This resource showcases the hard work of teachers involved in this project. All primary source activities, written by Ohio teachers, connect a primary document with a series of questions. The questions are arranged by level of difficulty; level 1 questions equate to knowledge acquisition, while level 2 and 3 questions ask students to compare, analyze, evaluate or make inferences about information or visuals. This content resource would be a good addition to a lesson that addresses this standard. In addition, this document could be easily converted into a pre-assessment or post-assessment activity.
  2. Akron Police Crash with Strikers: Labor Movement  II
5. Trace the development of the United States as a world power with emphasis on
a. the Spanish-American War
b. United States imperialism in the Far East, South Pacific, Caribbean and Central America
  1. William Howard Taft Foreign Policy Cartoon: Imperialism 
6. Trace the development of the United States as a world power with emphasis on
a. the decision to enter into World War I
b. President Wilson’s Fourteen Points
c. the Treaty of Versailles
d. the decision of the United States not to participate in the League of Nations
 
7. Analyze the impact of United States participation in World War II, with emphasis on the change from isolationism to international involvement including the reaction to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  1. Video1  News real to encourage contribution of women to the ward effort during WWII.
  2. Video 2  Video showing woman working to keep the family going.
  3. WWII Overview                                                                                               The purpose of this lesson is to give a very brief overview of American treatment of Japanese citizens on the West Coast during World War II. This lesson asks the students to read a brief narrative about this period in history and answer a series of questions. This lesson may best be used as a homework assignment, followed by small group or large group discussions. The length of the lesson is approximately one 90-minute class period or two class periods of shorter duration, however, lesson length could be minimized if the reading and questions were assigned as homework. The vocabulary section may be helpful for modifying the assignment for a variety of student ability levels.
  4. Pearl Harbor    This website will allow the student to view many different areas of the attach on Pearl Harbor.  It will open up with a flash video and then go to the website.
8. Explain how the Cold War and related conflicts influenced United States foreign policy after 1945 with emphasis on
a. the Marshall Plan
b. communist containment, including the Truman Doctrine, Berlin Blockade and Cuban Missile Crisis
c. the Korean War and the Vietnam War
  1. CNN - "The Cold War"
    This site is designed to complement the CNN video series "Cold War", but stands on its own very well. Each section contains Key Documents, TIME Magazine and Pravda articles for each episode, Biographies, Interactive Maps and Timelines, Interview Transcripts, Glossary, Streamed Video Segments from "Cold War", Games and more.
  2. United Nations and the Korean Conflict                                                         The lesson looks at the United Nations and its role in the Korean conflict. The lesson begins with a look at the development and functions of the United Nations. It then expands to look at the involvement of the United Nations in the Korean conflict and reflect on why they chose to get involved. The lesson closes with a student evaluation of the United States involvement in the Korean conflict. This lesson has great flow, innovative activity ideas, and direct access to excellent primary and secondary resources.
  3. Student Activity: Harry Truman and the Truman Doctrine
    This lesson utilizes primary resources from the Truman Library to provide students with a challenging, but complete examination of the development of the Truman Doctrine. The reading selections and complexity of issues examined will make this lesson challenging. The teacher may need to provide introductory content and accommodations for students of varying ability levels. This site presents the facts by using primary source documents.
9. Analyze the major political, economic and social developments of the 1920s including
a. the Red Scare
b. women’s right to vote
c. African-American migrations from the South to the North
d. immigration restrictions, nativism, race riots and the reemergence of the Ku Klux Klan
e. the Roaring Twenties and the Harlem Renaissance
f. stock market speculation and the stock market crash of 1929
  1. Smart Board Lesson Created by:  Thomas E Menches  SB
  2. Ohio Women
     This site uses pages of information, pictures, and primary sources to explain the struggles, accomplishments, and daily life of Ohio women and their influence both locally and nationally.
  3. Stock Market Crash Readings and Quiz
    This web site has an interactive quiz about the stock market crash of 1929. Along with each question is an original article from the New York Times from that time with information about that question.
  4. To Tell the Truth: Will Warren Harding Please Step Forward                       This lesson authored by teachers involved with the Ohio History Works Project, provides a creative means of motivating and engaging students to learn about Warren G. Harding and his presidency. The initial procedures of this lesson plan instruct teachers to explore the life of Warren G. Harding through research and analysis. Then using the information they obtain, students will become active contestants in a simulation of the popular 1970s television show “To Tell the Truth”. This activity will do more than just help students gain a greater appreciation for the work of Warren G. Harding. It will also instill the importance of careful research and close analysis of resources to ensure credibility. Primary Resources about Warren G. Harding are linked from this lesson plan that a teacher can use to direct students in their investigation or to print off for student reading.
  5. Women's Right to Vote                                                                                  This lesson is specific to Women's Suffrage as it unfolded in the late 19th century. This is an excellent resource for use with this 10th grade benchmark and indicator. This lesson provides a wealth of knowledge and links to many primary documents, including the "Declaration of Sentiments". Four activities are proposed to teach this lesson; "Trump of Women's Rights", "The Constitution/Legal Argument", "Suffrage and Anti-Suffrage Argument", and "Cartoons". Any of the activities could be used to ensure student understanding and high level thinking. Teachers should be cautioned that due to the large amount of content on this page, you may need to cut and paste materials before you encourage students to explore.
  6. McCarthyism and the Red Scare                                                                     This lesson provides an overview for students to learn about the Red Scare and McCarthyism. Students use the internet to complete a graphic organizer on the effects of McCarthyism on American society. Students are provided with an abundance of resources with information about Senator Joe McCarthy and the "Red Scare" that he led in the 1950s.This lesson could be completed in 1-2 class periods, and is geared towards AP U.S. History students. An evaluation and basic rubric are provided. The web quest would be good for introducing students to web-based research. The teacher will need to make adaptations for extensions and differentiated instructional strategies.
10. Analyze the causes and consequences of major political, economic and social developments of the 1930s with emphasis on
a. the Great Depression
b. the Dust Bowl
c. the New Deal
  1. The Great Depression and the 1990s - Lesson Two: Understanding the Times -- the 1930s                                                                                                          This resource requires students to research information using both texts and internet sites. The majority of the internet research is through the American Memory collection of the Library of Congress. In order to best use this site, students will need to be trained on how to navigate the site and locate the materials they need. There is a resource page provided. There are two other lessons from this curriculum unit that would be helpful to teachers for teaching the Great Depression. Although this resource is designed for use by 11th graders, it can be adapted.
11. Analyze the impact of United States participation in World War II with emphasis on
a. events on the home front to support the war effort, including industrial mobilization, women and minorities in the workforce
b. the internment of Japanese-Americans
  1. Documents and Photographs Related to Japanese Relocation During World War II                                                                                                                 The purpose of the lesson is for students to explore primary sources about the Japanese Internment during World War II. A couple of excellent lesson suggestions are given: exploration of primary source documents about the internment, and examination of photographs about this material. The assignments are largely group work, but could easily be adapted for individuals. The lesson includes handy and valuable document/photo analysis worksheets and suggestions for research projects with additional references. Worksheets that students can use to take detailed notes on these primary sources are also provided. This lesson, geared towards high school audiences, is expected to last 1-3 class periods.
12. Explain major domestic developments after 1945 with emphasis on
a. postwar prosperity in the United States
b. McCarthyism
c. the space race
d. immigration patterns
  1. CNN - "The Cold War"
    This site is designed to complement the CNN video series "Cold War", but stands on its own very well. Each section contains Key Documents, TIME Magazine and Pravda articles for each episode, Biographies, Interactive Maps and Timelines, Interview Transcripts, Glossary, Streamed Video Segments from "Cold War", Games and more.
  2. Memorandum of a Conference With President Eisenhower After Sputnik        This is a very specific lesson dealing with one aspect of the Cold War. The document analysis worksheet could be used with any primary source document and the teacher may choose to use that with all documents. The lesson is a very high level activity. Differentiated instructional strategies will be necessary to accommodate varying levels of reading and writing skills. The lesson possesses a strong concentration on analysis.
  3. Teaching With Documents: Telegram From Senator Joseph McCarthy to President Harry S. Truman                                                                             This lesson is from the National Archives. The lesson allows the teacher to approach the McCarthy Era in a variety of ways. Accommodations for many learning styles are provided. Numerous suggested activities are included. A document analysis worksheet is included in order to evaluate sources. The site and its links provide several good ideas for lessons and possible student questions.
13. Trace social unrest, protest and change in the United States including
a. antiwar protest during the Vietnam War
b. the counterculture movement
c. the women’s liberation movement
  1. CNN - "The Cold War"
    This site is designed to complement the CNN video series "Cold War", but stands on its own very well. Each section contains Key Documents, TIME Magazine and Pravda articles for each episode, Biographies, Interactive Maps and Timelines, Interview Transcripts, Glossary, Streamed Video Segments from "Cold War", Games and more.
     
14. Analyze the origins, major developments, controversies and consequences of the civil rights movement with emphasis on
a. Brown v. Board of Education
b. changes in goals and tactics of leading civil rights advocates and organizations
c. the linkages between the civil rights movement and movements to gain justice for other minority groups
  1. Documents Related to Brown V. Board of Education                                          The purpose of this lesson is for students to do their own analysis of a wide array of primary source documents relating to the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court Case of 1955. This lesson asks students to read an overview, and then to analyze these documents, and then perform any number of suggested activities to demonstrate their learning (from writing an editorial to creating a timeline to writing their own opinions (either for or against). The activities are diverse and include suggestions for poetry, graphics, letters and essays. One of the best features is a brainstorming activity to assess prior knowledge and a follow-up that uses these initial impressions to help students measure what they have learned. Some of the primary source documents that are tagged here are absolutely fascinating, including both the majority opinion and the dissenting opinion from the Supreme Court. The estimated duration of this lesson would be several class periods (3 - 5).
1. Describe how the perspectives of cultural groups helped to create political action groups such as
a. the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
b. National Organization for Women (NOW)
c. American Indian Movement (AIM)
d. United Farm Workers
  1. History Works    This content resource is provided by the History Works project. This project collects and identifies and analyzes quality primary documents to determine their usability in the social studies classroom. This resource showcases the hard work of teachers involved in this project. All primary source activities, written by Ohio teachers, connect a primary document with a series of questions. The questions are arranged by level of difficulty; level 1 questions equate to knowledge acquisition, while level 2 and 3 questions ask students to compare, analyze, evaluate or make inferences about information or visuals. This content resource would be a good addition to a lesson that addresses this standard. In addition, this document could be easily converted into a pre-assessment or post-assessment activity.

     

2. Analyze the perspectives that are evident in African-American, American Indian and Latino art, music, literature and media and how these contributions reflect and shape culture in the United States.  
3. Explain how Jim Crow laws legalized discrimination based on race.  
4. Analyze the struggle for racial and gender equality and its impact on the changing status of minorities since the late 19th century.  
5. Explain the effects of immigration on society in the United States
a. housing patterns
b. political affiliation
c. education system
d. language
e. labor practices
f. religion
  1. Mapping Ethnic Neighbors and Neighborhoods                                             This lesson explores the concept of the development of urban immigrant neighborhoods. Using this lesson teachers first ask students to explore photographs of activity and cultural patterns that were expressed in urban ethnic neighborhoods. A photo analysis sheet linked from this resource will guide students through the analysis process. The second activity requires students to investigate different ethnic neighborhoods within their own communities and regions. This lesson will make history relevant to the everyday lives of the students. This lesson also matches the 10th grade benchmark of Geography Benchmark C Indicator 3. Teachers should be prepared that they will need to locate a city plat map, which will require a teacher to contact a city official for a copy.
  2. Five Lesson Plans Relating to Emigration and Immigration.                         This is really a unit on immigration that consists of 5 lessons that explore the reasons why people immigrated to America in the mid-19th century and their experiences in America. Although these lessons are based on the German-American experience, they also address more universal experiences. Lesson 1 and 5 are most adaptable. In lesson 1 students are asked to evaluate the reasons why people left their homelands and why they were drawn to America. In lesson 5, students evaluate a poem written by a German-American immigrant that relates his experiences with immigration. Student are then asked to apply these experiences to more current situations. Each lesson lasts about 2 class periods. Especially valuable is that students are asked to apply these immigration experiences from history to more current situations. Another plus is that the key concepts are listed, allowing teachers to use those in a variety of ways for adapting to varying student ability levels.

Geography

1. Explain how perceptions and characteristics of geographic regions in the United States have changed over time including
a. urban areas
b. wilderness
c. farmland
d. centers of industry and technology
  1. Cultural Characteristics Influence a Region's Character                          Students will analyze data to distinguish countries based on demographic differences between them; and develop and test hypotheses about the sources of demographic differences. They will reflect critically about how countries should be grouped together statistically. An answer key is provided for the country handout, and web links for country information are given. The lesson takes one to two hours.
2. Describe how changes in technology, transportation and communication affect the location and patterns of economic activities and use of productive resources.
  1. Oil: The Problem or Solution to the World's Economic Future                       The purpose of this lesson is to introduce the students to the facts and figures of oil production and consumption. This lesson is designed for middle school students, but could easily be adapted for high school world history students. Students are asked to chart and map out the top oil producers and oil users and to look at the physical / topographical features of those nations. Students are expected to then analyze this data, and find any commonalities between these nations. Each pair will display their map and list of physical features. An extensive rubric is presented, and detailed guidelines are listed. An assessment activity is presented as well as an additional project. This lesson can be completed in 2 class periods.
3. Analyze the geographic processes that contributed to changes in American society including
a. industrialization and post-industrialization
b. urbanization and suburbanization
c. immigration
 

Economics

1. Evaluate the effects of specialization, trade and interdependence on the economic system of the United States.  
2. Analyze the development and impacts of labor unions, farm organizations and business organizations on the United States economy.  
3. Demonstrate how United States governmental policies, including taxes, antitrust legislation and environmental regulations affect individuals and businesses.  
4. Explain the reasons for the creation of the Federal Reserve System and its importance to the economy.
  1. FED101
    This interactive web site provides tons of information about the Federal Reserve System including the history, structure, monetary policy, banking supervision, and financial services. There are also simulations, games, quizzes, and downloadable teacher guides.
  2. Fiscal and Monetary Policy Process                                                        Students will follow each step of the fiscal and monetary policy process to see the logic of how these tools are used to correct economic instability. An interactive self check activity sheet is provided for students to follow as they answer extensive questions. Answers are given for the questions as well as an assessment activity. Reputable websites are provided for added detail. Students will need an advanced understanding of economic concepts prior to lesson introduction. This lesson can be completed in 1-2 class periods.
5. Analyze the impact of the Great Depression and World War II on the economy of the United States and the resulting expansion of the role of the federal government.
  1. The Great Depression and the New Deal
    Students will analyze a variety of primary sources to reflect upon impact of the Great Depression and New Deal. The selections present the primary sources and statistical charts, and follow with critical thinking questions for students to consider. Students will interpret data from a wide array of different aspects of daily life (number of radios and cars on the road) to banking investment, wages earned, days without food, and organized labor. Some copying and pasting could convert this into several handouts for the classroom, or the whole page could be completed as a web quest. This would be a supportive economic resource for a historical unit on the Great Depression.

Government

1. Examine the United States Constitution as a living document by analyzing its evolution through amendments and Supreme Court decisions including
a. Plessy v. Ferguson
b. Brown v. Board of Education
c. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
  1. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Plessy v. Ferguson[1896]                     Students will gain a deeper understanding of the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court Case through student centered, thought-provoking and support classroom dialogue activities. On the left column of the website is a link to suggestions for teachers options for lesson delivery. Depending on time availability, lessons could range from 1 to 4 days. An activity titled "Does Treating People Equally Mean Treating Them the Same?", maximizes student interest in this topic. Other activities provide a critical foundation of the Supreme Court process and the profound impact of this case.
  2. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Brown v. Board of Education [1954]          This lesson serves to familiarize the students with the aspects of the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case of 1954. Activities and readings dealing with a variety of topics from the decision itself to the speed of its implementation. The lesson is segmented into different lengths, depending on time available. There are also different activities to choose from on the basis of student reading levels. Assessment items are not included. The estimated duration of this lesson would be from 1 - 4 class periods.
2. Explain why the 19th and 26th Amendments were enacted and how they affected individuals and groups.
  1. Petition of Amelia Bloomer Regarding Suffrage in the West                  Students will work in teams to create an annotated webliography of sources (a bibliography of web sites) about Amelia Bloomer that would be useful to study the role of political reformers. Students must use three different types of search tools to locate information on Amelia Bloomer. One must be a search engine, the second must be a metadata search engine, and the third must be a subject directory . In class, student teams are asked to exchange annotated webliographies and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each. Teaching activities are provided as well as worksheets for evaluation. This lesson should be completed in 1-2 class periods.

Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities

1. Describe the ways in which government policy has been shaped and set by the influence of political parties, interest groups, lobbyists, the media and public opinion with emphasis on
a. extension of suffrage
b. labor legislation
c. civil rights legislation
d. military policy
e. environmental legislation
f. business regulation
g. educational
  1. Civil Rights: An Investigation                                                                    Students will study the Civil Rights movement focusing on events of the early 1960s. A foundation for introduction to the Civil Rights Movement is provided for students with limited background information. Extension activities include the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the actions of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. Alternative activities for varying student ability levels are included.
  2. Uncover Power point This power point illustrates how government policy has shaped by one person.  This presentation was created by Larry Solomon
2. Explain how civil disobedience differs from other forms of dissent and evaluate its application and consequences including
a. women’s suffrage movement of the late 1800s
b. civil rights movement of the 1960s
c. student protests during the Vietnam War
  1. Ohio Women
    This site uses pages of information, pictures, and primary sources to explain the struggles, accomplishments, and daily life of Ohio women and their influence both locally and nationally.
  2. CNN - "The Cold War"
    This site is designed to complement the CNN video series "Cold War", but stands on its own very well. Each section contains Key Documents, TIME Magazine and Pravda articles for each episode, Biographies, Interactive Maps and Timelines, Interview Transcripts, Glossary, Streamed Video Segments from "Cold War", Games and more.
3. Explain the considerations and criteria commonly used in determining what limits should be placed on specific rights including
a. clear and present danger
b. compelling government interest
c. national security
d. libel or slander
e. public safety
f. equal opportunity
 
4. Analyze instances in which the rights of individuals were restricted including
a. conscientious objectors in World War I
b. immigrants during the Red Scare
c. intellectuals and artists during the McCarthy Era
d. African-Americans during the civil rights movement
  1. CNN - "The Cold War"
    This site is designed to complement the CNN video series "Cold War", but stands on its own very well. Each section contains Key Documents, TIME Magazine and Pravda articles for each episode, Biographies, Interactive Maps and Timelines, Interview Transcripts, Glossary, Streamed Video Segments from "Cold War", Games and more.

Social Studies Skills and Methods

1. Determine the credibility of sources by considering the following
a. the qualifications and reputation of the writer
b. agreement with other credible sources
c. recognition of stereotypes
d. accuracy and consistency of sources
e. the circumstances in which the author prepared the source
  1. An Oral History Project:                                                                                  This lesson plan is directed towards teaching students how to conduct and present an oral report. This resource could be incorporated into a variety of content specific lesson plans that correlate to many different social studies content standards. Also, linked is a tutorial for performing oral histories that is a great resource for teachers to use when creating student assessment directions and rubrics. This resource leads teachers to resources that will help appropriate prepare students and help them build skills and methods that will aide success in the future.
2. Critique evidence used to support a thesis.  
3. Analyze one or more issues and present a persuasive argument to defend a position.